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The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework The Energy Content Of Different Fuels PLAN: Introduction: Different fuels produce different amounts of energy when they are burnt in oxygen. I am going to investigate the different energy contents of alcohols. I am going to use just alcohols because when I find out the energy per mole produced by different alcohols I can compare them. I am going to use Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol and Pentanol. When fuels are burnt in oxygen, water and carbon dioxide are formed. The combustion also produces heat. This is because when the alcohol burns energy from the heat is used to break the bonds and when they form carbon dioxide and water they are making bonds and energy is released. This energy becomes heat. I am going to investigate how much energy is produced by each alcohol I burn and compare the results when I have finished. ? Prediction: For my prediction I am going to calculate how much energy should be produced by each alcohol. I am going to do this by using a secondary source of information. This is a book called 'AS Chemistry' published by 'Collins' by 'Nicholls and Radcliffe'. I will uses this by taking the values given in this book of how many kJ/mol are required to break/make certain bonds. The information that I am going to use is: To break a C?H (Carbon to Hydrogen) bond it requires 413 Kjmol-1 of energy. To break a C?O (Carbon to Oxygen) bond it requires 360 Kjmol-1 of energy. To break an O?H (Oxygen to Hydrogen) bond it requires 463 Kjmol-1 of energy. To break a C?C (carbon to Carbon) bond it requires 347 Kjmol-1 of energy. To break an O=O (double oxygen) bond it requires 498 Kjmol-1 of energy. To make a C=O (Carbon to Oxygen double) bond it produces -743Kjmol-1 of energy. To make an O?H (oxygen to Hydrogen) ...read more.

Middle

Because this did not work very well, with the rest of my results I used tin foil to surround the experiment so that as much heat as possible would be reflected back in and not lost to the atmosphere. From this results table, I will calculate the energy produced for each fuel that I have done and then average the ones that have been done when the experiment was surrounded by tin foil. Fuel Mass before (g) Mass After (g) Temp. Before (?C) Temp. After (?C) Distance (cm) Methanol 221.11 218.314 18 92 10.5 Ethanol 206.77 205.02 24.5 95 10.4 Propanol 230.06 228.94 18.5 78.5 10.5 Butanol 230.58 227.36 18 91 10.5 Pentanol 219.59 216.65 19 91 10.5 Methanol 228.08 226.65 20 91 10.4 Ethanol 246.4 244.4 20 92 10.5 Propanol 216.4 214.8 20 93 10.3 Butanol 219.1 218.3 20 90 10.5 Pentanol 225 223.6 19 89 10.5 Methanol 220.3 218.4 20 90 10.4 Ethanol 236 233.5 21 90 10.6 Propanol 227.2 225.9 21 90 10.5 Butanol 216.9 215.4 21 90 10.4 Pentanol 237.7 235.3 21 90 10.5 Methanol 217.7 215.5 22 91 10.5 Ethanol 234.5 232.3 22 92 10.6 Propanol 223.6 222.3 22 90 10.6 Butanol 237.7 236.8 21 90 10.6 Pentanol 235.3 234 22 89 10.5 The first Fuel is Methanol: Preliminary experiment: * Temperature rise= (92-18)= 72?C * Mass of fuel used = (221.11 - 218.314) = 2.796 g * Molar mass of CH3OH = 32 No. of moles = mass Molar mass No. of moles = 2.796 / 32 = 0.087375 moles of fuel used * Energy used & produced to = mass of water X S.H.C X Temp rise heat the water Energy = 25 X 4.2 X 74 = 7770 joules 5. Energy produced per mole = energy produced to heat the water No. of moles of fuel used Energy produced per mole = 7770 / 0.087375 = 88927 /1000 = 88.927 kjmol-1 1st Methanol: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The scales that measured the mass of the fuel in the burner were not digital and so there could have been some human error in reading them and some inaccuracy. * The time between, when we put the flame out and checked the temperature of the water and the mass of the fuel would have been different each time which meant that maybe the temperature had continued to increase by the time we measured the temperature and so was not the same temperature that it was when we stopped the experiment. There weren't any major problems, and the experiment was done safely. There were two incidents that we could prevent in the future where the water got to boiling point quickly and wasn't stopped in time apart from that everything went relatively well. If we were to do this experiment again, I think that we should use more tin foil so that we can cover also the top of the experiment because heat was being lost there. I think that we could be more careful in reading off measurements from rulers or scales. I also think that we should have definitely made sure that the distance between the clamp stand and the bottom of the boiling tube were exactly the same each time that we did it instead of being roughly the same. Next time we could measure a different variable such as seeing how long each fuel takes to heat a boiling tube of water to 100?C. This would be able to show us how quickly each fuel can produce enough energy to bring the water to boiling point. We could also use the five different fuels and have exactly the same amount of mass in each and burn them, and time which one burns up the fastest. This would also show us how quickly each fuel breaks and makes bonds. Sophia Walter U5C 15/12/2005 Chemistry Coursework Page 1 of 3 ...read more.

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