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The Erosion of Marble

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Erosion of Marble Background Information Marble ( calcium carbonate ) reacts with acid to give off carbon dioxide, water and a salt (calcium chloride). The carbonate 'fizzes' and dissolves when acid is added. Some pollutants in air are acidic gases, namely sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. These gases react with other gases, and then rain water which makes the rain water acidic. Acid rain can form as follows; Sulphur dioxide + oxygen = sulphur trioxide 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 then, sulphur trioxide + water = sulphuric acid SO3 + H2O = H2SO4 Reactions like this makes rain water become acidic. Acid rain has a pH of between 5 and 2. Thus acid rain can attack marble and limestone as well as water biology and may be responsible for the death of trees in Europe. Title - Investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric (HCl) alters the rate of its reaction with marble. calcium + hydrochloric = calcium +carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) = CaCl2(aq)+ CO2(g) + H2O(l) We can determine the rate of reaction by measuring the mass of CO2 given off with time. The rate of reaction is found by measuring the loss in mass of the of the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid after mixing. This represents the loss in carbon dioxide. Prediction I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid used is increased, the rate of reaction will increase also. ...read more.

Middle

The results are shown in the tables below. Concentration of solution, 40 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 0 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.09 0.07 0.08 30.00 0.23 0.21 0.22 45.00 0.38 0.37 0.38 60.00 0.52 0.52 0.52 90.00 0.77 0.77 0.77 120.00 0.98 0.97 0.98 150.00 1.13 1.12 1.13 180.00 1.25 1.25 1.25 210.00 1.34 1.35 1.35 240.00 1.42 1.42 1.42 270.00 1.48 1.48 1.48 300.00 1.53 1.53 1.53 330.00 1.57 1.56 1.57 360.00 1.60 1.61 1.61 Concentration of solution, 30 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 10 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.06 0.08 0.07 30.00 0.17 0.21 0.19 45.00 0.30 0.31 0.31 60.00 0.41 0.44 0.43 90.00 0.59 0.63 0.61 120.00 0.75 0.79 0.77 150.00 0.86 0.91 0.89 180.00 0.95 1.00 0.98 210.00 1.01 1.07 1.04 240.00 1.06 1.13 1.10 270.00 1.09 1.17 1.13 300.00 1.12 1.19 1.16 330.00 1.16 1.22 1.19 360.00 1.16 1.24 1.20 Concentration of solution, 20 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 20 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.04 0.06 0.05 30.00 0.08 0.09 0.09 45.00 0.16 0.23 0.20 60.00 0.22 0.31 0.27 90.00 0.35 0.45 0.40 120.00 0.46 0.57 0.52 150.00 0.53 0.65 0.59 180.00 ...read more.

Conclusion

Also at the times of the recording the reading on the scales changes sometimes on that second, therefore some readers could take the later results and some could take the earlier results, to improve the accuracy of this we could have a set standard, either use the later result all of the time or use the earlier result all of the time. Also we done the experiments on two different days with a week of difference in between the two dates of the experiments so there could have been a slight temperature difference on these two different days, if I had a longer time to do the experiments on the same day then we could conclude that temperature made no difference on my findings. Although there is many factors which were not made constant that could influence the results of our findings, there is still significant evidence to prove that the results are accurate enough to say that, as the concentration of acid used will affect the rate of dissolving Calcium Carbonate. The higher the concentration of acid used the faster the CaCO3 will dissolve and the smaller the concentration of acid used the slower the CaCO3 will dissolve. This is because all our results have a trend, the higher the concentration of the acid the quicker the acid will dissolve the CaCO3, and all the graphs display that erosion happens slowly at first and then starts to speed up and finally slowing down, indicating that there is a link between all the graphs therefore I deem my results to be reliable. ...read more.

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