• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15

The Erosion of Marble

Extracts from this document...


The Erosion of Marble Background Information Marble ( calcium carbonate ) reacts with acid to give off carbon dioxide, water and a salt (calcium chloride). The carbonate 'fizzes' and dissolves when acid is added. Some pollutants in air are acidic gases, namely sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. These gases react with other gases, and then rain water which makes the rain water acidic. Acid rain can form as follows; Sulphur dioxide + oxygen = sulphur trioxide 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 then, sulphur trioxide + water = sulphuric acid SO3 + H2O = H2SO4 Reactions like this makes rain water become acidic. Acid rain has a pH of between 5 and 2. Thus acid rain can attack marble and limestone as well as water biology and may be responsible for the death of trees in Europe. Title - Investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric (HCl) alters the rate of its reaction with marble. calcium + hydrochloric = calcium +carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) = CaCl2(aq)+ CO2(g) + H2O(l) We can determine the rate of reaction by measuring the mass of CO2 given off with time. The rate of reaction is found by measuring the loss in mass of the of the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid after mixing. This represents the loss in carbon dioxide. Prediction I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid used is increased, the rate of reaction will increase also. ...read more.


The results are shown in the tables below. Concentration of solution, 40 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 0 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.09 0.07 0.08 30.00 0.23 0.21 0.22 45.00 0.38 0.37 0.38 60.00 0.52 0.52 0.52 90.00 0.77 0.77 0.77 120.00 0.98 0.97 0.98 150.00 1.13 1.12 1.13 180.00 1.25 1.25 1.25 210.00 1.34 1.35 1.35 240.00 1.42 1.42 1.42 270.00 1.48 1.48 1.48 300.00 1.53 1.53 1.53 330.00 1.57 1.56 1.57 360.00 1.60 1.61 1.61 Concentration of solution, 30 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 10 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.06 0.08 0.07 30.00 0.17 0.21 0.19 45.00 0.30 0.31 0.31 60.00 0.41 0.44 0.43 90.00 0.59 0.63 0.61 120.00 0.75 0.79 0.77 150.00 0.86 0.91 0.89 180.00 0.95 1.00 0.98 210.00 1.01 1.07 1.04 240.00 1.06 1.13 1.10 270.00 1.09 1.17 1.13 300.00 1.12 1.19 1.16 330.00 1.16 1.22 1.19 360.00 1.16 1.24 1.20 Concentration of solution, 20 cubic cm's Hydrochloric acid and 20 cubic cm's of Water Time (secs) Mass of CO2 given off Average mass of expt 1 expt 2 CO2 given off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.04 0.06 0.05 30.00 0.08 0.09 0.09 45.00 0.16 0.23 0.20 60.00 0.22 0.31 0.27 90.00 0.35 0.45 0.40 120.00 0.46 0.57 0.52 150.00 0.53 0.65 0.59 180.00 ...read more.


Also at the times of the recording the reading on the scales changes sometimes on that second, therefore some readers could take the later results and some could take the earlier results, to improve the accuracy of this we could have a set standard, either use the later result all of the time or use the earlier result all of the time. Also we done the experiments on two different days with a week of difference in between the two dates of the experiments so there could have been a slight temperature difference on these two different days, if I had a longer time to do the experiments on the same day then we could conclude that temperature made no difference on my findings. Although there is many factors which were not made constant that could influence the results of our findings, there is still significant evidence to prove that the results are accurate enough to say that, as the concentration of acid used will affect the rate of dissolving Calcium Carbonate. The higher the concentration of acid used the faster the CaCO3 will dissolve and the smaller the concentration of acid used the slower the CaCO3 will dissolve. This is because all our results have a trend, the higher the concentration of the acid the quicker the acid will dissolve the CaCO3, and all the graphs display that erosion happens slowly at first and then starts to speed up and finally slowing down, indicating that there is a link between all the graphs therefore I deem my results to be reliable. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Frightening experience - an Unforgettable trip.

    Kien went crazy and started screaming and kicking but we held him tight. My granddad quickly took off his shirt, ripped it and tied it around Kien's leg to stop it from bleeding.

  2. An unforgetable trip.

    Joshua dived into the water. I was going to jump in as well but my granddad told me not to do so because it was too dangerous. They grabbed Kien, cut the line where he was hooked and brought him back to the boat.

  1. To investigate the factors affecting the volume of carbon dioxide produced when a carbonate ...

    Fair Testing To keep this experiment fair, it needs to be accurate, reliable and precision is required when gathering data. To increase reliability, the experiment will be repeated, so that two or three sets of results will be recorded. This depends upon how long it takes per set of results.

  2. An Investigation to Measure the Rates of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate (Marble Chips) And ...

    carbon dioxide to be collect every ten centimetres cubed was a fairly steady time excluding the half molar. In conclusion to this preliminary investigation we have chosen to following measurements for the main experiment:- Volume of acid - 20 cm� Mass of calcium carbonate - 2g Range of concentration -

  1. Investigate the factors, which affects how quickly Calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid.

    Figure 1 shows the effect of particle size on the rate of reaction. In fig 1a) the square represents a large lump of a substance. In figure 1B the small squares represent the same mass of a substance in smaller pieces.

  2. Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with ...

    The experiment must be repeated at least twice so as not to get any anomalous results. The constants must be checked every time a result is taken. Prediction The volume of Carbon Dioxide produced will increase directly proportionally with the mass of Calcium Carbonate used.

  1. To Investigate the Factors Affecting the Rate of Erosion of Buildings Made of Marble ...

    Method I will conduct the experiment in the laboratory so that the temperature will always be at room temperature. I will keep the mass of calcium carbonate the same throughout the experiment, and measure the length of time it takes for the measuring cylinder to become full of gas.

  2. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    area; I have washed the granules in water to get rid of the powder and correcting it. (For powder, it does not matter as much, as they are roughly the same.) -Temperature-Will be conducted at room temperatures, the temperature of the room is the same because there is a thermostat

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work