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The Factors Affecting the Rate of an Enzymic Reaction.

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Introduction

The Factors Affecting the Rate of an Enzymic Reaction Brief: Design and carry out an experiment that shows the factors that affect the rate of an enzymic reaction, using catalase. Introduction: In this investigation I will be investigating the enzyme catalase to determine which factors i.e. the temperature, the concentration and volume affect the rate of reaction involving catalase in the liver and hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts, they are made in the cells and they speed up a reaction without being used up themselves during the reaction. Catalase is used in the liver to get rid of the poisonous substrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It breaks down the hydrogen peroxide particles into water and oxygen, which are both harmless to the body. There are many different types of enzymes in each organ, including the liver but catalase in particular is used in the liver, it can tolerate the high temperatures produced during the breaking down of hydrogen peroxide and wont become denatured during the reaction. After the break down of hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxygen, the products carry on through the body to the kidneys where they are either extracted as waste or absorbed into the blood. Variables: There are several different factors that affect the rate of the catalase reaction, they are... * The Temperature at which the reaction is carried out. * The concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. * The volume of hydrogen peroxide. There are other variables that could be possible to investigate but for the following reasons I will not be experimenting using these factors. ...read more.

Middle

Preliminary Testing: For my preliminary testing I will be investigating different temperatures concentrations and volume of the hydrogen peroxide and see what effect it has on the rate of the enzymic reaction. Test 1: varying temperature Test 2: varying concentration 2cm3 liver 2cm3 liver 10cm3 of 10% H2O2 10cm3 of 5, 10, 20% H2O2 Test 3: varying volume of H2O2 2cm3 liver 5, 10, 20cm3 of 10% H2O2 Preliminary Results: Changing concentration of H2O2- 2cm3 liver, 20cm3 H2O2, at room temp. Concentration (%) Volume of oxygen produced in 3mins (cm3) 5 60 10 125 20 Over 250 Changing temperature- 20cm3 10% H2O2, 2cm3 liver. Temperature (oC) Volume of oxygen produced in 3mins (cm3) Ice - 2oC 51 Room temperature - 20oC 120 Hot water - 35oC 110 Changing volume of H2O2- 10% H2O2, 2cm3 liver, at room temp. Volume of H2O2 (cm3) Volume of oxygen produced in 3mins (cm3) 5 74 10 120 20 196 Analysis of preliminary results: From my preliminary results, I can see that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide increases, as does the volume of oxygen produced in three minutes. As the temperature increases towards room temperature the production of oxygen increase however by 35oC the catalase was beginning to become denatured by the heat. As the volume of the hydrogen peroxide increased, so did the production of oxygen. How could I improve the accuracy and difficulty of my experiment? Problems: Solutions: There was slight contamination when measuring out the different concentrations of the hydrogen peroxide which could have affected my results and made them inaccurate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Using my method, I obtained good and accurate measurements, especially after repeating the process and finding an average. This enabled me to produce two accurate graphs which clearly showed the answers to my investigation. It showed the changes in the rate of reaction with the different volumes proving my prediction correct. I didn't have any surprising results, which proves that my method was accurate as there was no obvious human error. The apparatus I used was as accurate as possible with the equipment available, the only factor I would change would be that I would have included using a pipette into my plan and used it for all measurement as I think it is more accurate and I find it easier to use than a measuring cylinder. I would have also repeated the process a further time just to improve accuracy and produce a better average. If I were to do my investigation again, I would only change the volume of liver I used. I would still use 2cm3 but next time, to increase accuracy, I would weight each piece to ensure they are exactly the same weight. This was impractical for this experiment however with a shortage of time. I was pleased with my results and am glad I chose only to focus on the changing volumes rather than temperature as well. My findings clearly support my prediction and the facts behind an enzymic reaction, which is what I was aiming for throughout my investigation. I think what I found out is a reliable source of scientific information regarding rate of reaction and the factors affecting it which is what my whole investigate was about. By Lauren Simpson 1 ...read more.

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