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The group II elements are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium andRadium. The appearances of the Group II elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour.

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Introduction

Group II Elements The group II elements are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and Radium. The appearances of the Group II elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour. The alkaline earth metals are high in the reactivity series of metals, but not as high as the alkali metals of Group 1. Reactivity of Group II elements increases down the group. This can be explained by the increase in ease at losing two outer electrons as the elements descend the group. The loss of electrons becomes easier due to the decreasing ionisation energy required. Ionisation energy decreases due to extra shielding from inner shells and increase in distance from the nucleus. ...read more.

Middle

These electrons are relatively easy to remove, but removing the third electron is much more difficult, as it is close to the nucleus and in a filled quantum shell. This results in the formation of M2+. The ionisation energies reflect this electron arrangement. The first two ionisation energies are relatively low, and the third very much higher. Reaction with oxygen All group II elements react in air to form an oxide layer which dulls the surface of the metal. Barium is so reactive it is stored under oil.The reactivity increases down the group, and they all forming a white oxide. 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) Reaction with water Reactivity increases down the group. ...read more.

Conclusion

They are prepared easily by reaction of the metal, metal oxide or metal carbonate with an acid. Magnesium, magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate all dissolve in hydrochloric acid, to form colourless solutions containing (aq) magnesium chloride, MgCl2(aq). This white crystalline compound may be obtained by partial evaporation of the solution. The reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid is that the magnesium ribbon dissolves rapidly in cold dilute hydrochloric acid with rapid evolution of hydrogen gas. Mg(s) + 2HC(aq) MgCL2(aq) + H2(g) Chalk and lime Chalk is made from the sedimentary remains of marine invertebrates, chemically they are composed of calcium carbonate CaCO3. Limestone and chalk are used in large quantities to manufacture quick lime (calcium oxide) and cement. Strong heating of calcium carbonate produces calcium oxide, CaO(s) + CO2(g) Calcium oxide reacts vigorously with water to produce calcium hydroxide Ca(Oh)2. ...read more.

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