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The Haber Process

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Introduction

The Haber Process. For this chemistry coursework, I have decided to study The Haber Process. The Haber process was discovered by famous German scientists named Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in the year 1909; it was then patented within 1910. During the process, Ammonia is manufactured from the reaction of Hydrogen and Nitrogen, where Ammonia is reversible and also decomposes under the same conditions. The reaction between Hydrogen and Nitrogen takes place over an Iron Catalyst under 200 atmospheres ranging from temperatures of 350�c to 550�c. The first time the process made use of was during World War One on an industrial scale by the German people. The Ammonia was oxidised for nitric acid in the Ostwald process. The Nitrogen from fractional distillation of liquid air is obtained from air and the Hydrogen which is from natural gas and steam is obtained from water. The balanced equation for this process is: CH4 (g) + 2H2O (g) CO (g) + 4H2 (g) = Reversible reaction The reaction involving Nitrogen and Hydrogen is a chemical equilibrium which means that depending on the conditions, the reaction can proceed in either a forward or reverse direction. The forward reaction is exothermic where heat is given out and the reverse reaction is endothermic where heat is taken in. ...read more.

Middle

On the graph, I can see that there is an anomalous result for the temperature of 350�c in the atmosphere of 200 with a percentage yield of 52% for Ammonia. I can tell that this is an anomalous result as it does not fit on the graph with the other points for 350�c; it does not appear on the curve and is much higher than the other plotted points for this curve. As a result of this, I will re-test this to make the results fair, reliable and accurate. I will now look at each temperature at 400 atmospheres to measure the yield of Ammonia. For the temperature of 350�c, the percentage yield at the atmosphere of 400 is 65%, for 400�c, the yield is 50%, for 450�c the percentage yield is 38%, the yield for 500�c is 33% and for 550�c, the percentage yield at 400 atmosphere is 18%. From looking at these results, I can tell that the percentage yield decreases as the temperature increases. Now I shall compare the percentage yields for two different chosen temperatures from the graph. I have decided to compare percentage yields of 350�c and 550�c. For 350�c, the percentage yield at the pressure of 100 is 32% and the percentage yield for 400 is 65%. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Ammonia is formed as a gas but cooling the condenser liquefies at the high pressures used and therefore is removed as a liquid. Unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen is fed back in to the reaction. The pressure is the economical situation attempting to increase as much pressure as possible. Initially, Haber and Bosch used reaction chambers of Osmium and Uranium catalysts. Currently, Iron Catalyst is used as it is less expensive. During the Industrial practice, Iron Oxide and Magnetite is used to produce the iron catalyst which is given to the Hydrogen reactants. This decreases the magnetite to metallic Iron and also removes the Oxygen within the process. On the other hand, the catalyst keeps most of its density volume throughout the chemical reaction. The larger the surface area of the catalyst, the more bulk is maintained and meaning the porous is higher therefore it makes it a more effective catalyst. Calcium and Aluminium which are other minor components of the catalyst supports the porous and also helps maintain the surface area and the reactivity increases the Potassium which raises the Electron density of the catalyst. The Ammonia is formed as a gas but cooling the condenser liquefies at the high pressures used and therefore is removed as a liquid. Unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen is fed back in to the reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is an in depth report into the Haber process. Its language is sometimes confusing and hard to follow. The theory is good with a few small mistakes (these have been highlighted)

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 17/06/2012

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