• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Haber Process

Extracts from this document...


The Haber Process. For this chemistry coursework, I have decided to study The Haber Process. The Haber process was discovered by famous German scientists named Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in the year 1909; it was then patented within 1910. During the process, Ammonia is manufactured from the reaction of Hydrogen and Nitrogen, where Ammonia is reversible and also decomposes under the same conditions. The reaction between Hydrogen and Nitrogen takes place over an Iron Catalyst under 200 atmospheres ranging from temperatures of 350�c to 550�c. The first time the process made use of was during World War One on an industrial scale by the German people. The Ammonia was oxidised for nitric acid in the Ostwald process. The Nitrogen from fractional distillation of liquid air is obtained from air and the Hydrogen which is from natural gas and steam is obtained from water. The balanced equation for this process is: CH4 (g) + 2H2O (g) CO (g) + 4H2 (g) = Reversible reaction The reaction involving Nitrogen and Hydrogen is a chemical equilibrium which means that depending on the conditions, the reaction can proceed in either a forward or reverse direction. The forward reaction is exothermic where heat is given out and the reverse reaction is endothermic where heat is taken in. ...read more.


On the graph, I can see that there is an anomalous result for the temperature of 350�c in the atmosphere of 200 with a percentage yield of 52% for Ammonia. I can tell that this is an anomalous result as it does not fit on the graph with the other points for 350�c; it does not appear on the curve and is much higher than the other plotted points for this curve. As a result of this, I will re-test this to make the results fair, reliable and accurate. I will now look at each temperature at 400 atmospheres to measure the yield of Ammonia. For the temperature of 350�c, the percentage yield at the atmosphere of 400 is 65%, for 400�c, the yield is 50%, for 450�c the percentage yield is 38%, the yield for 500�c is 33% and for 550�c, the percentage yield at 400 atmosphere is 18%. From looking at these results, I can tell that the percentage yield decreases as the temperature increases. Now I shall compare the percentage yields for two different chosen temperatures from the graph. I have decided to compare percentage yields of 350�c and 550�c. For 350�c, the percentage yield at the pressure of 100 is 32% and the percentage yield for 400 is 65%. ...read more.


The Ammonia is formed as a gas but cooling the condenser liquefies at the high pressures used and therefore is removed as a liquid. Unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen is fed back in to the reaction. The pressure is the economical situation attempting to increase as much pressure as possible. Initially, Haber and Bosch used reaction chambers of Osmium and Uranium catalysts. Currently, Iron Catalyst is used as it is less expensive. During the Industrial practice, Iron Oxide and Magnetite is used to produce the iron catalyst which is given to the Hydrogen reactants. This decreases the magnetite to metallic Iron and also removes the Oxygen within the process. On the other hand, the catalyst keeps most of its density volume throughout the chemical reaction. The larger the surface area of the catalyst, the more bulk is maintained and meaning the porous is higher therefore it makes it a more effective catalyst. Calcium and Aluminium which are other minor components of the catalyst supports the porous and also helps maintain the surface area and the reactivity increases the Potassium which raises the Electron density of the catalyst. The Ammonia is formed as a gas but cooling the condenser liquefies at the high pressures used and therefore is removed as a liquid. Unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen is fed back in to the reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is an in depth report into the Haber process. Its language is sometimes confusing and hard to follow. The theory is good with a few small mistakes (these have been highlighted)

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 17/06/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To determine the amount of ammonia in a sample of household cleaning product, 'cloudy ...

    5 star(s)

    2. An empty beaker was weighed and the mass recorded in Table 1.1. 3. The beaker was kept on the balance and the Na2CO3 added to the beaker until the required amount (as calculated in step 1) was reached. The mass of the beaker and Na2CO3 was recorded in Table 1.1.

  2. To investigate three factors that affect the rate of cooling a liquid and to ...

    from the beaker, but when the woollen lagging was used it effectively acted as a barrier to stop heating from passing through the beaker and therefore more time is needed for the water in the beaker to cool down to the same temperature as a beaker with no insulation.

  1. Solubility of potassium chlorate

    If I cool from ...... to ,I can get ..............of crystals will form. (use graph to give this information) 6. From the graph I can show that above the solubility line the solution is saturated and solid appears. A saturated solution is .... Below the solubility line the solid is completely soluble and always exists as a solution.

  2. Preparation of Potassium Trioxalatoferrate (III)

    A clock glass was weighed before the crystals were transferred to it. The crystals were covered with a filter paper and left to dry at room temperature in a dark cupboard. Once dry, the crystals and clock glass were reweighed.

  1. Investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature.

    In my opinion I think that the results, which I got where quite accurate, but there were some inaccurate, and I have highlighted these in my results table. The results which were anomalous which were compared to others have many reasons behind them.

  2. Indirect determination of enthalpy change of decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate by thermochemical measurement ...

    The final temperature, however, typically will not be at room temperature. If the reaction is exothermic, the final temperature will be above room temperature, and heat will slowly be lost from the calorimeter to the surroundings. Instead of being constant, the final temperature will slowly drift downward.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

    time so that the same concentration and amounts will be obtained each experiment. I will also be controlling the chain length of the acid and alcohol I use in the reaction. If I change the chain length of the reactants different products are going to be produced and may affect the equilibrium constant of the reaction.

  2. Analysing the ethanoic acid concentration in different types of vinegars.

    The number of moles of acid in 50cm3 of vinegar is: 5 x 0.00843 = 0.0422 (3 sf) and from this I can calculate the [acid] in vinegar using the equation: Acid Concentration = (1000 x number of moles)/volume = (1000 x 0.0422)/50 = 0.843 mol/dm3 (3sf)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work