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# The Heat Output of the Bunsen Burner Flame.

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Introduction

THE HEAT OUTPUT OF THE BUNSEN BURNER FLAME AIM To compare the heat output using different types of flame PRELIMINARY WORK In my preliminary work I decided to investigate the temperature rise per gram of fuel for three different fuels; hexamine, a wax candle and a paraffin lamp. To do this each fuel heated 200ml of water from approximately 20�c to 40�c, I then calculated the temperature rise per gram of fuel using the equation: TEMPERATURE RISE (�c) MASS OF FUEL USED (g) I used a variety of apparatus; a stand and clamp, a tin can, 250ml measuring cylinder, weight scales, thermometer, hexamine/candle/paraffin lamp and a heat-proof mat. Here are my results: SUBSTANCE TEMPERATURE BEFORE (�c) TEMPERATURE AFTER (�c) MASS BEFORE (g) MASS AFTER (g) MASS DIFFERENCE (g) Wax Candle 19.0 40.5 44.486 43.500 20.290 Paraffin Lamp 20.5 39.0 151.95 150.940 19.802 Hexamine 19.5 34 (burnt out) 10.974 9.700 15.699 I realised from my preliminary work that the heat disperses in varies directions, the distance between the flame and the tin can containing the water can vary and the heat is lost into the room and the equipment. So taking these points into consideration I have designed an experiment to compare the heat output of a Bunsen burner. APPARATUS * Stand and clamp * Tin can * 250ml measuring cylinder * Weight scales * Thermometer * Bunsen Burner * Heat proof mat * Stopwatch PROCEDURE * Set up apparatus as shown in the diagram above * Measure ...read more.

Middle

I will repeat the experiment so that perhaps if an error occurred the first time I will know. NUMBER AND RANGE OF OBSERVATIONS I will adjust the air hole by 2mm each time for until I reach 10mm, which is fully open to get a clear spread of results. I will then repeat my experiment to make sure that all my previous results are correct and also to get a range of results. THEORY AND PREDICTION Rupert Bunsen invented the Bunsen burner in 1855 whilst he was in Germany. He decided to use a compound gas called methane. Methane is a hydrocarbon which is a compound of hydrogen and carbon, it is the simplest hydrocarbon with the formula CH4, which means it is made up of four hydrogen's and one carbon. Other hydrocarbons are ethane, propane, butane, pentane and more. As you go down the list of hydrocarbons the amount of carbons and hydrogen's change in the formula: Cn H2 x n + 2. The idea Bunsen had was simple: instead of mixing the gas with the air right at the point of combustion, he proposed mixing the gas with the air before combustion. This is an example of an exothermic reaction, which gives out energy, normally in the form of heat. The reaction taking place in a Bunsen burner can be illustrated by the equation: 2CH4 + 3O2 2CO + 4H2O Methane + Oxygen Carbon Monoxide + Water I predict that when the air hole if fully ...read more.

Conclusion

EVALUATION I think overall, this experiment has been successful, due to the results illustrating what I predicted and that they are theoretically correct, also I only have one anomalous result. I think that the procedure is reliable because I got a clear spread of results, however if I was to do the experiment again I would be more exact when measuring the distance between each position of the air hole. I would perhaps mark on a piece of paper the distances and then wrap it around the base of the Bunsen burner and then line up the air hole on the marks. There were various problems when conducting my experiment, these were; the heat dispersed in various directions and the heat was lost into the room and the equipment. If I was to do this experiment again I would place a piece of cardboard covered in tin foil around the experiment to contain the heat, this would prevent heat loss into the room and the heat dispersing in various directions. This would give me more accurate results. I think I collected enough evidence to draw a conclusion, I also think that I got a clear spread of results. However, if I was to do this experiment again I might move the air hole by 1mm rather than 2mm each time, this would give me more results, although I don't think that by doing this I would prove anything other that what I have already proved. ?? ?? ?? ?? Amy Gardner ...read more.

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