• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last tree centuries.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last tree centuries. Before 1950,the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulphur dioxide produced from the burning of coal, can combine with fog to create industrial smog. In high concentration, industrial smog can be extremely toxic to humans and other living organisms. Today the use of other fossil fuel, nuclear power, and hydro electricity instead of coal has greatly reduced the occurrence of industrial smog. However, the burning of fossil fuel like gasoline can create another atmospheric pollution problem knows as photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is a condition that develops when primary pollutants interact under the influence of sunlight to produce a mixture of hundreds of different and hazardous chemical known as secondary pollutants. Photochemical smog usually occurs during early hours, when the environmentally damaging by car emission cause the level of unburnt hydrocarbons and NO to rise .The sun oxides the NO to NO2 .The NO2 is proteolyses in sunlight which means that the molecules break down again. ...read more.

Middle

The hydrocarbonis attacked by the hydroxyl radical Ohwhich cause the breakdown of hydrocarbons which can be illustrated below BPEOS at longannet was used to minims the output of particlur waste material such as SOx and NOx Have put lonanner at forefront of the development and application of new technologny to deal with these pollutants. There are two different sorts of method of lower the emission of NOx.Most large combustion plantsuses low NOx Burners.The rate of reaction increase with temperature and if the temperature of combustion of the fuel is lower ,the rate of production of thermal NOx will be less.In the low NOx burners are air is introduced to the finely ground coal to give lower remperature flames,as a result significant reduction of thermal NOx and fuel NOx. If combustion not complete maxium haet is not realeased..high temperature stem enables most efficient conversionsof heat into electrictal energy.Gas reburn is another mehod which reduces nox emission and removes Most large combustion plants now uses low NOx burners .In low NOx burner the introduction of air to the finely ground coal is controlled to give low temperature as a result reduction to the thermal NOx and fuel NOx. ...read more.

Conclusion

The pollutants are trapped closes to the ground .If an occurrence of light prevailing wind; the polluted air mass is moved from urban areas to rural regions. The highest ozone recorded was recorded over rural areas because chemical reaction producing the secondary pollutants. In 1995 the bright sunshine and still air provided the ideal condition for photochemical smog. The smog caused havoc and was very dangerous to people with asthmatics and many old and young people. As the hot weather continued, weather showed high concentration of ozone in the country. Flue gases contain oxides of nitrogen(no) for two reasons. firstly ,fuels contain compounds of nitrogen, formed from proteins contained in organism. When the fuel is burnt ,these nitrogen compounds are oxidised to form what is called fuel NOx. secondly at high temperature of combustion ,atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen combine to form what is called thermal NO x. most of the NOx emissions are thermal NOx All living organism contain compounds of sulphur and these are the origin of the sulphur found in coal. when coal burns ,the sulphur compounds are converted to oxides of sulphur (Sox).because some organism contain more sulphur than others, the amount of sulphur in coal varies according to the types of organisms from which the coal was originally formed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. This is a mini-project on fuel - topics include petrol and fossil fuels.

    Solar (or 'photovoltaic') cells, which use the Sun's radiation to generate electrical energy, are also becoming cheaper and more efficient. Earlier cells, made from large slices of crystalline silicon, were very expensive, but new materials amorphous silicon and gallium arsenidle, are bringing the price down toward the goal of about $1 per watt.

  2. Should we produce more artificial fertilizers to produce more food?

    Chatelier's Principle the best temperature and pressure are used in the Haber Process and also iron oxides are utilized as a catalyst. Therefore both productivity and efficiency of the process are truly high and it is even said it is impossible to substantially develop them even further.

  1. Outline how the main pollutants are formed in vehicle engines and the environmental problems ...

    Heterogeneous catalysts are when the catalyst is in a different phase (i.e. solid, liquid or gas) to the reactants. Heterogeneous catalysts provide a surface on which a chemical reaction can take place.In order for the reaction to occur one or more of the reactants must diffuse to the catalyst surface and adsorb onto it.

  2. Guide To Hendon Central

    So you�ve spent a day at Brent Cross, but what about nightlife in Hendon central? Well there aren�t any. There are a few dodgy nightclubs, which look like they haven�t been visited for the past 100 years so your safest bet is to catch the tube into town.

  1. Do fuel cell systems offer a feasible alternative to combustion engines in minimizing the ...

    The reaction changes chemical into electricity. A sufficient size and number of fuel cells can generate enough electricity to power vehicle motors and systems, among other things. A claim in the Britannica encyclopedia says that the use of fuel cell systems can be traced all the way back to the 60s, when they were first being developed.

  2. Describe, in terms of production of photochemical smog, what is meant by primary pollutants ...

    The ideal conditions for ozone build up occur from May to August in the UK The formation of photochemical smog is due to reactions carried out in the troposphere by the reaction O2 + O O3 The oxygen needed for this reaction are formed by the action of ultraviolet light

  1. What is Nuclear Power.

    It is recovered in the same fashion. U308 is the uranium product which is sold from the mine. About 180-200 tonnes is required to keep a large (1000 MWe) nuclear power reactor generating electricity for a year. Conversion Because uranium needs to be in the form of a gas before

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    oxide is being formed. The volume of air decreases as oxygen is used up. Make sure as the copper reacts, the Bunsen burner is moved along the tube, so that it is always heating fresh copper. Eventually all the oxygen in the air will be used up.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work