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The Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rate in the Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Acid.

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Introduction

Emily Hatton 11MB July - October 2001 The Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rate in the Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Acid. Plan When sodium thiosulphate (Na S O ) reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) sulphur precipitates throughout the solution. It becomes cloudy and eventually you cannot see a black cross on a white piece of paper held underneath the beaker. Sulphur precipitates and doesn't dissolve as sulphur is insoluble, the sulphur is in suspension. Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid ( Sodium Chloride + Sulphur + Water + Sulphur Dioxide Na S O (aq) + 2HCl(aq) ( 2NaCl(aq) + S(s) + H O(aq)+ SO (g) I am going to investigate whether changing the temperature at which the solution is heated at will increase the rate of reaction. The rate of reaction is how long it takes for the reactants to turn in to the products of the solution. A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide. The particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. This is known as the collision theory. There is a minimum amount of energy, which colliding particles need in order to react with each other, if they have less than this minimum energy then they just bounce off of each other and no reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

Overall I am going to take 8 results ranging between one at room temperature (between 18�C and 23�C) and seven every 5�C between 30�C and 60�C making them accurate by recording them to 1dp. I will repeat my investigation three times to increase the reliability of my results and allow me to take an accurate range, mean and median. Any odd results will be noted, explained and repeated. Prediction I expect my results to show that by increasing the temperature every 5�C the time in which the cross disappears to decrease. As I explained before by increasing the temperature, the sodium thiosulphate particles and the hydrochloric acid particles will gain more heat energy, which is transferred to kinetic energy. Therefore colliding (reacting) more frequently and with more speed. If I were to plot my results on a graph I would expect the line to increase as the temperature increases but to decrease like the time. Therefore inverse proportionality to occur. As a general guide at some point I expect the rate of reaction to double therefore the gradient of the plot become twice as steep. Trial Run In my trial run I only investigated the extremes of temperature (23�C and 60�C). ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluating Evidence All of my results fit the pattern except one, the 35�C result from the second set of readings, I think this was because I didn't measure the sodium thiosulphate solution accurately enough meaning I added to much thiosulphate in the 35�C solution thus the cross took longer to disappear. I think that my experimental method gave very accurate results. I could have improved my experiment by using a data logger because the data logger takes readings every second whereas I was only taking readings when the cross disappeared. Apart from this the method I used was very successful and because I stuck to plan there were no results that could not be explained. The results obtained by this experiment are reliable as I have a graph, table and rate of reaction table all supporting the same prediction and results. Although I could expand these further by plotting the reciprocal on a graph using all the readings, not just the averages and also taking further readings. Also repeating any odd results. I feel that I can make a firm conclusion with my results as the background information matches the prediction also. With more time and money I could extend the investigation by investigating more thorough temperatures and looking at the concentration of the solution too. ...read more.

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