• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Angela Carpenter The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing. Breathing is an involuntary movement that is controlled by the medulla, which is part of the hind brain. Air is sucked into the lungs by an active process called inspiration. The external intercostals muscle contract and the internal intercostals muscle relax this causes the ribs to be drawn upwards and outwards. While this is happening the diaphragm muscles contracts and pushes down towards the abdomen. The lungs are made to expand because the pleural surfaces of the lungs are attached to the pleural on the chest wall; this increases the volume of the air spaces and drops the air pressure in the lungs so that air rushes in. ...read more.

Middle

Regulation of breathing is controlled by the respiratory centre in the hind brain. The respiratory centre has three areas called the medullary rhythmicity area, the apneustic area and the pneumotaxic area. Basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration is controlled by the medullary rhythmicity area. Nerve impulses from the apneustic area can alter the depth of breathing and nerve impulses from the pneumotaxic area can alter the breathing rate. The respiratory centre is influenced by many sensory signals which indicate what changes need to be done to the regulation of breathing. ...read more.

Conclusion

Baroreceptors are also found in the aortic arch and carotid bodies and these are sensitive to a change in blood pressure. The ph of the blood is monitored by the peripheral chemoreceptors. In the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles there and stretch receptors which are simulated by overstretching during excessive inspiration. The control of breathing is a complex interaction and can be influenced by many other factors e.g. raised body temperature, pain and emotion. There is also an ability to control and alter our breathing voluntary for various reasons such as speaking, yawning or coughing. Reference: Advanced human biology. J Simpkins. J I Williams. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Revision notes - Human Biology

    5 star(s)

    DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Dominant Dominant genes show their effect even if there is only one copy of that gene in the pair.

  2. The effect of exercise on gas exchange and breathing

    They respond to changes in PCO2 via H+ ions. CO2 diffuses easily from the blood through the blood-brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. Here it is converted into HCO3- and H+ by reacting with H2O. A rise in CO2 results in a rise in H+ ion concentration. This rise in H+ ion concentration is detected on the ventral surface

  1. Homeostatic mechanisms I have monitored.

    I could have tested more candidates and taken a more thorough medical and lifestyle survey alongside it. How systems work together to bring about homeostasis Analyse of Sarah W's results.

  2. Describe how the mechanism of ventilation is controlled. Describe the roles of the phrenic ...

    on this mechanism.At rest regular nerve impulses are sent to the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles ,causing rythymic contraction and relaxation of these muscles .This causes the volume and pressure changes in the thorax which cause breathing. Mechanism of control of breathing Breathing is clearly an involuntary process(unless in cases

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work