• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Angela Carpenter The Mechanism and Regulation of Breathing. Breathing is an involuntary movement that is controlled by the medulla, which is part of the hind brain. Air is sucked into the lungs by an active process called inspiration. The external intercostals muscle contract and the internal intercostals muscle relax this causes the ribs to be drawn upwards and outwards. While this is happening the diaphragm muscles contracts and pushes down towards the abdomen. The lungs are made to expand because the pleural surfaces of the lungs are attached to the pleural on the chest wall; this increases the volume of the air spaces and drops the air pressure in the lungs so that air rushes in. ...read more.

Middle

Regulation of breathing is controlled by the respiratory centre in the hind brain. The respiratory centre has three areas called the medullary rhythmicity area, the apneustic area and the pneumotaxic area. Basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration is controlled by the medullary rhythmicity area. Nerve impulses from the apneustic area can alter the depth of breathing and nerve impulses from the pneumotaxic area can alter the breathing rate. The respiratory centre is influenced by many sensory signals which indicate what changes need to be done to the regulation of breathing. ...read more.

Conclusion

Baroreceptors are also found in the aortic arch and carotid bodies and these are sensitive to a change in blood pressure. The ph of the blood is monitored by the peripheral chemoreceptors. In the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles there and stretch receptors which are simulated by overstretching during excessive inspiration. The control of breathing is a complex interaction and can be influenced by many other factors e.g. raised body temperature, pain and emotion. There is also an ability to control and alter our breathing voluntary for various reasons such as speaking, yawning or coughing. Reference: Advanced human biology. J Simpkins. J I Williams. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Describe how the mechanism of ventilation is controlled. Describe the roles of the phrenic ...

    like forced breathing), and like many involuntary processes (such as heart rate, coughing and sneezing) it is controlled by a region of the brain called the medulla. It is located at the top of the spinal cord. The medulla and its nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system (i.e.

  2. The effect of exercise on gas exchange and breathing

    Volume of carbon dioxide expired per min Discussion Most of the group results fitted in with what I expected as the tidal volume increased for during exercise when compared to the control results. However the increase was not as large as would have been expected.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work