• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The problem of why large birds, for example Penguins, are found at the South Pole and smaller birds, for example Robins and Sparrows are found in the British Isles.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

BIOLOGY COURSEWORK Philip Braithwaite BIG BIRD - SMALL BIRD In this piece of coursework, I will be investigating the problem of why large birds, for example Penguins, are found at the South Pole and smaller birds, for example Robins and Sparrows are found in the British Isles. My theory to explain these circumstances revolves around the theme of adaptation. Generally animals are well adapted to living in their surroundings. Due to this, animals living in cold regions, for example the South Pole, tend to be larger in size than those living in warmer regions, because the larger animals have to retain more heat in order to survive. But how does being larger benefit these animals in keeping warm? There is obviously some relationship between the size of the bird and the amount of heat lost. While trying to discover this relationship I will experiment with flasks of different sizes, which will act as hypothetical model birds, as it would be unethical to experiment with live birds. There are three main ways in which heat can be lost. These are conduction, convection and radiation. I will talk about each of these: - 1. Conduction - This is the transport of heat by the collision of molecules. Molecules in a hot region move faster than those in a colder region. ...read more.

Middle

CUBE 1 Side - 1cm Surface area - 6cm2 Volume - 1cm3 Surface area to Volume ratio - 6 : 1 CUBE 2 Side - 4cm Surface area - 96cm2 Volume - 64cm3 Surface area to Volume ratio - 1.5 : 1 CUBE 3 Side - 8cm Surface area - 384cm2 Volume - 512cm3 Surface area to Volume ratio - 0.75 : 1 A hypothetical cube of side n cm :- CUBE 4 Side - n Surface area - 6n2 Volume - n3 Surface area to Volume ratio - 6/n : 1 So I have now discovered a method of linking surface area to volume in order to obtain a measure that can be used during the course of this investigation which is more precise than just size. From looking at these cubes I can say that as the object increases in size, the surface area to volume ratio decreases. I predict that the smallest flask I use will have the highest rate of heat-loss because it will have the largest surface area to volume ratio and that the largest flask I use will have the slowest rate if heat-loss because it will have the smallest surface area to volume ratio. Scientific experiments need to be carried out with maximum precision if a 'fair test' is to be obtained. ...read more.

Conclusion

The graphs will be: - 1. Lines of average temperature verses time - average temp ( oC) Time (mins) 2. A bar chart of total heat loss against volume of flask - Total heat loss ( oC) Volume of flask (ml) 3.Lines of heat loss verses surface area : volume - Rate of heat loss ( oC / min) Surface area : volume After carrying out the experiments, recording the results, processing them and drawing graphs on the results, I will study the evidence I have obtained and draw conclusions from it. I will also discover if they prove my hypothesis that the larger flasks will retain more heat. I will now carry out the experiments using the method shown on the next page. METHOD 1. Set up the apparatus as shown on the next page. 2. Draw out a table with the headings shown before. 3. Fill a kettle with water and heat until boiling. 4. Pour this boiling water into the flask attached to the retort stand. 5. Start the stop-clock when the reading on the thermometer is the same as your predetermined starting point. 6. Measure the temperature each minute for 20 minutes, recording the results obtained in the table each time. 7. Allow the flask to cool, and then repeat steps 1-6 using the same flask. 8. Repeat steps 1-7 with different sizes of flasks. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work