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The purpose of this experiment is to oxide ethanol a primary alcohol and then to test the product to determine whether it has been oxidised to ethanal an aldehyde: CH3CH2OH + [O] → CH3CHO + H2O

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Introduction

The Oxidation Of Ethanol Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to oxide ethanol a primary alcohol and then to test the product to determine whether it has been oxidised to ethanal an aldehyde: CH3CH2OH + [O] � CH3CHO + H2O Or whether it has been oxidised to ethanoic acid a carboxylic acid: CH3CH2OH + 2[O] � CH3COOH + H2O In theory, ethanal should be produced as a product. This is because you will be distilling the ethanal as it forms so it isn't exposed to the acidified sodium dichromate to become a carboxylic acid. Therefore the CHO group of ethanal will not be oxidised further to the COOH group of ethanoic acid. Observations As the sodium dichromate and ethanol solution in the dropping funnel were slowly added to the concentred sulphuric acid in the pear shape flask, the colour of the solution gradually changed from orange to green as more of the dichromate and ethanol was added. This was because a reaction took place, so the dichromate - Cr2O72- got reduced to form chromium ions - Cr3+ and the ethanol got oxidised. When the sodium dichromate and ethanol solution was added to the concentred sulphuric acid in the pear shape flask, I noticed that it began to bubble and out give out heat. ...read more.

Middle

Summary Of Tests Test Carried Out What The Test Tested For Observations Conclusion 5 drops of the distillate added to 5cm3 of 2, 4 dinitrophenylhydrazine Presence of a carbonyl group Orange precipitate formed within the yellow/ orange solution Aldehyde was produced as the product 5 drops of universal indicator added to the distillate Presence of an acid group Colour of universal indicator changed from green to pale green Neutral colour so no ethanoic acid was produced as the product Sodium carbonate solution added to the distillate Presence of an acid group No bubbles produced Sodium carbonate solution didn't react so ethanoic acid wasn't produced as the product Risk Assessment A lot of the chemicals used throughout the experiment are toxic to the environment and can cause long term adverse effects, therefore once used the chemicals will be left to the technicians to dispose of them safely. I will wear eye protection throughout the whole experiment, so the likely hood of the any of the irritant or harmful chemicals getting into my eyes and harming them will be low. Sodium dichromate * I am only using 5g of sodium dichromate when making it into a solution therefore there will be minimal risk of any of the dust from it entering my eyes. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Just in case any acid gets into a vapour, this part of the procedure will be performed in a fume cupboard so there will ventilation for the fumes to escape and again, eye protection will be worn to make sure none of the acid is splashed in my eyes. Ethanal * This is an extremely flammable chemical therefore a small amount of ethanol will be used at the start, so not much of the ethanol will be oxidised to produce ethanal. In addition to this, the ethanal will be collected in a boiling tube which will be in a beaker full of an ice/water mixture which will lower the temperature of the chemical. This will minimise the risk of the ethanal catching alight. * Ethanal is classed as a category 3 carcinogen and has the risk of causing irreversible effects if inhaled. For that reason once all of the ethanal is collected, it will then be stored in a specimen tube within a fume cupboard. Dinitrophenylhydrazine * This chemical is toxic by skin contact and stains skin yellow on contact which can lead to dermatitis. So to minimise contact with the skin I will use a pipette to dispense it into the boiling tube. (Source: Cleapss Sheet 1995) ...read more.

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