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The rate of reaction between Nitric acid and marble chips.

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Introduction

Aim The experiment will be on the reaction of Nitric acid and marble chips. CaCO3 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O This particular reaction is rather slow and so needs to be quicker by changing the factors that affect the rate of reaction. In order to make predictions I need to research on what factors there are and from that, I will be able to draw up a prediction for the experiment. Introduction There are five ways that the rate of reaction can be affected 1. Temperature 2. Surface area 3. Pressure in gaseous reactions 4. Concentration 5. Catalyst This is why: Temperature: Surface area: Pressure: High Pressure Low Pressure Concentration: Catalyst: All of these factors have something to do with the collision theory. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. The basic idea is that particles have to collide in order to react, and they have to collide hard enough as well. All of the above methods of increasing the rate of reaction can be explained in terms of number of collisions, between reacting particles: 1. Temperature: when the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker, they are going to have more collisions. 2. Concentration or pressure: If the solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant knocking about between the water molecules which makes collisions between the important particles more likely. ...read more.

Middle

into a beaker. 6) Pour 20cm3 of nitric acid into a boiling tube. 7) Place a calcium carbonate chip (of what mass you have chosen) inside the boiling tube. 8) Place bung firmly on top of the boiling tube. 9) Start the timer as soon as you place the bung on the boiling tube. Safety: 1) Wear safety goggles. 2) Hold bung from the end and not from the delivery tube to avoid injury. 3) If there is hot water in a beaker, hold the beaker from the rim. 4) Also place apparatus on the middle of the bench to avoid spillages and to avoid injury. How I kept it a Fair Test: > I kept the mass of the calcium carbonate chip at 0.48g. > I kept the amount of nitric acid at 20cm3. > I equilibrated the equipment to the reacting temperature. > I took the same amount of time placing the marble chip in the boiling tube each time. Results Volume of CO2 lost Temperature (�C) 4�C Time (min) Run 1 Run 2 Average 0:30 0 0 0 1:00 0 0 0 1:30 0 0 0 2:00 2 1 1.5 2:30 4 3 3.5 3:00 5 4 4.5 3:30 6 5 5.5 4:00 7 7 7 4:30 9 9 9 5:00 10 10 10 Volume of CO2 lost Temperature (�C) 22�C Time (min) Run 1 Run 2 Average 0:30 1 0 0.5 1:00 4 2 3 1:30 9 6 7.5 2:00 15 10 12.5 2:30 20 15 17.5 3:00 25 19 22 3:30 27 24 25.5 4:00 30 29 29.5 4:30 35 34 34.5 5:00 39 36 37.5 Volume of CO2 lost Temperature (�C) ...read more.

Conclusion

Experimental Error 1. Top Pan Balance: This was only accurate to three decimal places, as the mass of the marble chip had to be 0.48g the experimental error would be: 0.475 0.48g = 0.01 0.01/0.48 x 100= 0.2% error. 0.485 The experimental error for the top pan balance is relatively low. 2. Thermometer: This was only accurate to +/- 1?C. The temperatures I used for my experiment were: 4, 22,27,32,37. The errors for each temperature are as follows: 4- 1/4 x 100= 25% error 22- 1/22 x 100= 4.5% error 27- 1/27 x 100= 3.7% error 32- 1/32 x 100= 3.1% error 37- 1/37 x 100= 2.7% error 3. Time: 29:01 30:01 = 0:01/30 x 100= 0.0003% 4. Measuring Cylinder: This was only accurate to +/- 1 cm3. 1/100 x 100= 1% error For the thermometer as the temperature increased the experimental error decreased therefore I was more likely to find an error in my results at the lower temperatures. For the measuring cylinder when the volume is small the error is large. The total experimental error for each temperature is: 4?C- 26.2003% error 22?C- 5.7003% error 27?C- 4.9003% error 32?C- 4.3003% error 37?C- 3.9003% error As you can see, the lower the temperature the higher the experimental error. Improvements * Marble chips- I could not ensure the size and mass of each marble chip, therefore could employ a sieve type mechanism. * Range- I would spread the temperatures out more even; however have less error owing to lower temperatures. * Water- I would have water, which was saturated with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3). As this allows little CO2 to dissolve in it. ...read more.

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