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The rate of reaction between Sulphur Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning Aim: To investigate the rate of reaction between Sulphur Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid. This experiment is primarily based on chemical reactions and what affects the rate of these reactions. To grasp the idea of the experiment, one must first understand the fundamental knowledge behind chemical reactions. The features of a chemical reaction are summarised below: * One or more new substances are produced. In many cases an observable change is apparent, for example a colour change or a gas is produced. * An apparent change in mass may also occur. The change is usually due to gas being given off. * An energy change is almost always involved. In most cases energy is released and the surroundings become warmer. In some cases energy is absorbed from the surroundings and so the surroundings become cooler. For a chemical reaction to occur, the reacting particles (atoms, molecules and ions) must collide. There must be enough energy involved in the collision to break the chemical bonds in the reacting molecules. If the energy transfer is not large enough the particles will just bounce off one another. A collision with enough energy to result in a chemical reaction is referred to as an 'effective collision'. This approach is called the collision theory. Particles must Collide with enough energy to Make an effective collision. Some chemical reactions occur extremely quickly, for example, the explosive reaction between petrol and oxygen in a car engine is over a fraction of a second. ...read more.

Middle

A lump of coal will burn slowly in the air whereas coal dust can react explosively. Pressure Increasing the pressure on the reaction between gases will increase the rate of the reaction. Increasing the pressure has the effect of reducing the volume of the gas and so moving the particles closer together. If the particles are closer together there will be more collisions and therefore more effective collisions. Light Increasing the intensity of light will increase the rate of some reactions. This fact is important in photography. The photographic film is coated with chemicals that react when in contact with the light. Some laboratory chemicals, for example silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide are stored in brown glass bottles to reduce the effect of the light. Catalyst A catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up. The mass of the catalyst remains unchanged throughout the reaction. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes slowly at room temperature into water and oxygen. This reaction is catalysed by manganese (IV) oxide. Manganese (IV) Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen MnO 2H O 2H O + O Most catalysts work by providing an alternative 'route' for the reaction that has a lower activation energy 'barrier'. This increases the number of effective collisions each second. Some catalysts slow down reactions. These are called negative catalyst or inhibitors. ...read more.

Conclusion

Despite this, all my 'good' results fitted my prediction well and the first graph had a strong trend. My investigation could have been better if I'd tested my results to ensure that I had not made any mistakes, and if I'd carried out any preliminary work in order to familiarise myself with the project. Also, if I'd set-up and equipment and thought carefully about the whole investigation I would have been able to find a better way of doing the experiment. The problem comes when using the overall average that any anomalous results that are included to produce this average make it less accurate and so less dependable. My results seem reliable but you always have to consider more. Because I am basing my interpretation of their reliability on a hypothesis and my own personal view it is hard to tell. I see them as reliable but if my views and hypothesis are wrong then the results are not reliable. I would need more time to research this further in order to make a firm decision. I think that the original idea of using a computerised light sensitive device was a good idea. I feel that with more time I could develop a way to use this. The results that I could get from this (if it worked) would be more reliable and 'strong'. To extend this work one could look into the affects of catalysts (and other variables) on reaction times. Rate Of Reaction 1 Barbara Mettle-Olympio 11s ...read more.

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