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The rate of reaction of metals with acid.

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Introduction

The rate of reaction of metals with acid Aim: To determine the order of reaction and the activation energy of the reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. To do this I will have to carry out two procedures; one for the order of reaction and one for the activation energy. Background knowledge Rate of reaction In a reaction that takes place between two substances X and Y it is possible to follow the reaction by observing how quickly substance X is used up. The scientific way to see how the rate changes, would be by changing the concentration. The rate of reaction is usually measured as the change in concentration of a reaction species with time. The units of rate= mol dm-3 s-1 Concentration per time Order of reaction For a reaction: A+B+C Products The order of reaction shows how the reaction rate is affected by the concentrations of A, B and C. If the order is 0 (zero order) with respect to reactant A than the rate is unaffected by changes in concentration of A. The way to show this is this: Rate [ A ]0 If the order is 1 (first order) with respect to a reactant B than the rate is doubled by doubling of the concentration of reactant B. Rate [ B ]1 If the order is 2 (second order) with respect to a reactant C than the rate is quadrupled by doubling of the concentration of reactant C. Rate [ C ]2 Combining the information above Rate [ A ]0[ B ]1[ C ]2 Therefore rate = k [ ...read more.

Middle

Procedure 2: The aim of the second procedure is to work out the activation energy. To do this I will have to do the experiment which measures the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. The acid which is in a boiling tube should be heated to temperatures between 30�Cto 70�C in a water bath. I would than measure the time it takes for a magnesium ribbon to dissolve completely in the Hydrochloric acid. I this experiment I would again use 0.5 M of Hydrochloric acid with 1.5cm of Magnesium. Due to safety precautions I would cover the test tube with cotton-wool to prevent the escape of Hydrogen gas. After I obtained the results I will work out the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. This is the equation: ln k = constant - EA/R (1/T) Where k is the rate constant of the reaction, R is the gas constant, 8.31 J K-1mol-1. EA is the activation energy of the reaction in J mol-1 and T is the temperature in kelvins. We can work out the activation energy using the graph I would have drawn which 1/T against ln rate Set of results for Procedure 1 These are the set of results for the collection of hydrogen, between Magnesium and different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid. Time in seconds Volume of Hydrogen released at 0.4M Volume of Hydrogen released at 0.5M Volume of Hydrogen released at 0.6M 20 2.10 cm3 5.25 cm3 6.90 cm3 40 3.70 cm3 10.00 cm3 11.00 cm3 60 5.00 cm3 14.30 cm3 16.70 cm3 80 6.00 ...read more.

Conclusion

Setting the gas syringe would be much easier as well because I would than not have to waste valuable practical time with filling the burette up with water. To improve the accuracy I would not only take the class averages but the entire year groups, a larger sample giving a larger perspective and a more accurate average. The nature of the reaction cannot be controlled, but the apparatus can be manipulated. Human errors Human error played a small role in the course of the experiment. There was a difficulty in obtaining a reading because of the small multiple lines indicating the decimals. So basically there is a chance of getting the reading wrong by maybe +0.1cm3 or -0.1cm3. Inserting the different amounts of solutions could have also caused an error because some of the solutions could have been spilled while trying to put them in the conical flask. Limitations of the method and apparatus The method and apparatus was set to give the best method for collecting the gas, however the problem was in the addition of the magnesium into the conical flask. The problems that occurred were that there was a sudden burst of gas that surged through the system and into the gas burette when the Magnesium was being added. A practical error which should have been taken care of was not to agitate the mixture during the course of the reaction because this would have resulted in a very bad outcome of results. Agitating the mixture would have given the particles extra kinetic energy which means that more oxygen would have been produced at the time when the solution gets agitated. ...read more.

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