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The rates of reaction between CaCO3 and HCL

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

March 2004 SC1: Chemistry Course work 1 Background information * CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl + H2O + CO2 * The rate of reaction is affect by: Temperature, Surface area, Volume of HCL, Mass of CaCO3 * The higher the average decrease, in mass, the higher the purity * The ratio of reactions needs to be unbalanced, there needs to be twice the amount of HCL than the mass of CaCO3 * 100g of pure CaCO3 yields 44g of CO2 Problem Two samples of Limestone have been quarried from different points of a quarry (East and West) these need to be tested to see which the purist is. Preliminary Investigation: In mass of CaCO3 and HCL need to be decided to do this I will set up two experiments using: * Conical flasks * Stop Clock * Balance * Spatula * Measuring flask * Powered Limestone * Hydrochloric acid Diagram to show set up of apparatus The two experiments need to test the ratio of reactions this is done my measuring amounts of CaCO3 in to a Conceal Flask adding acid and writing down the change of mass of a set range at certain intervals. The ratio of reactions needs to be unevenly balanced double the amount of HCL to CaCO3 if the reactions are balanced the experiment will not work, if there is to little HCL then there will be CaCO3 left in the flask at the end of the experiment. Method: I set up a conical flask on a balance, with a reading of 0.00, and then measured out 10g of CaCO3 and in a measuring cylinder measured out 50ml of HCl. The HCl and CaCO3 were mixed in the conceal flask and I took results every 15 seconds for 2:15 as I hoped this would give ample data. Experiment one: 50mlHCl and 10g CaCO3 Time in seconds Weight in grams 0.00 50.68 0.15 50.67 0.30 50.66 0.45 50.65 1:00 50.64 1:15 50.64 1:30 60.63 1:45 60.62 2:00 60.62 2:15 60.62 Experiment ...read more.

Middle

and weight of a person leaning on the bench would be readjusted by the balance and counted as the mass of reactants. Also if someone knocks the bench this would jerk the scales and most probably mean the maximum weigh is exceeding so the experiment would be ruined. The scales should not be re zeroed after weighing the mass of CaCO3 as this would affect the results and unless done on every test would not be a fair experiment. The HCL is added to the CaCO3 whilst still on the balance because as soon as the HCL and CaCO3 are mixed the reaction starts, so not on the balance on data could be taken. As soon as all the HCL has entered the conical flask the 1st data should be taken and the stop clock started, after that at 15minute intervals for three minutes. Repeat the test three times for each sample, the three repeats ensure any anomalous results are identified and an average can be taken. Risk Assessment: HCL is used in the experiment, this is of a concentration strong enough to burn the eye and cause blindness so as a precaution goggles should be warn throughout and if any HCl comes in contact with the skin the area should be washed immediately to prevent any burns. Observations: West Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Time in seconds Mass in grams Mass in grams Mass in grams Average Mass Total decrease in mass 0 25.02 24.96 24.85 24.94 00.00 15 24.92 24.84 24.75 24.84 00.10 30 24.85 24.79 24.69 24.77 00.17 45 24.80 24.75 24.66 24.74 00.20 60 24.75 24.70 24.62 24..69 00.25 75 24.74 24.67 24.58 24.66 00.28 90 24.70 24.64 24.56 24.63 00.31 105 24.68 24.60 24.54 24.61 00.33 120 24.65 24.58 24.52 24.58 00.35 135 24.63 24.56 24.51 24.57 00.36 150 24.62 24.54 24.49 24.55 00.38 165 24.61 24.52 24.49 24.54 00.39 180 24.61 24.51 24.47 24.53 00.41 195 24.60 24.50 24.47 24.52 00.42 210 24.59 24.49 24.46 24.51 00.43 ...read more.

Conclusion

Extra force applied to the actual balance * Inaccuracies when weighing out reactants not weighing masses exactly so that if 5g mass was stated using 5.01g. * Not taking results at the set time but after or before * Not starting the timer after the HCl was pored in but after or before changing the first results The affect on the results cannot be calculated but the chances of error due to degree of accuracy can be. Time 0.01 15 x 100 = 0.06666666666 = 0.06% (2 dp) Mass 0.01 5 x 100 = 0.20% (2dp) Improvements to the plan Considering the effect of error on the accuracy of the results there is three things I would do to improve the plan. * Instead of using a large measuring cylinder using tow smaller this would decrease the %chance of error. Also when measuring the HCl to ensure the visual axis is in line with the meniscus to reduced error due to parallax * Increase the number of tests per sample to four this again would reduce the margin of error. Also it would provide extra data which show anomulas results and four graphs could be draw to show the different decrease in mass for each test, then overlaid so that a check could be produced for the graph. * The proof that CO2 was given off and not solids were in the equation. Instead of relaying on the equation set up a control to prove that if the CO2 wasn't let to escape there would be little or no loss in mass a control. Diagram to show set up of control: The control would be set up with the changes made to plan, above, made and the rest as stated in the original plan, instead a bung would be inserted to stop any gasses escaping. This would prove the whole investigation so the evidence gathered could be proved by data as well as equations. Which would make the results more accurate and scientifically accurate. ...read more.

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