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The Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

The Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Planning Aim I intend to find out the effects of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the surface area of calcium carbonate on the rate of reaction in the reaction below: Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Water + Carbon Dioxide Carbonate Acid Chloride CaCO3 + 2HCL CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Scientific Knowledge > Chemical reactions can take place at different speeds. > A reaction which is over in a fraction of a second is a very fast reaction i.e. it has a high rate of reaction. As the time taken for the reaction to be completed increases, the rate of reaction decreases. That is: Rate of Reaction ? 1/Time > Increasing the concentration of reactants increases the rate of reaction. > Increasing the pressure of gases increases the rate of reaction. > In both cases, there are more collisions between particles which could lead to more successful outcomes, and hence a faster reaction. > Increasing the temperature increases the rate of reaction. > Increasing the temperature increases the average speed of particles and kinetic energy. Faster moving particles result in more collisions. More collisions are successful because the particles pass the activation energy necessary for the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Pilot Study I needed to find out what sort of range of values would be best to use to show the best range of results without being to hard to measure. I used the same method as the main experiment. I did four experiments both with different variables; my results are below: Experiment Amount of Acid/cm3 Amount of Calcium Carbonate/g Concentration Of Acid/mol/dm3 Size of particles of Calcium Carbonate Time Taken to displace 30cm3 of Water/secs. A 5 1 2 Small 55.99 B 5 5 2 Small 9.66 C 3 3 2 Large 72.04 D 1 3 2 Powder 5.44 I looked at my results. I thought that using 5cm3 of acid and 3g of calcium carbonate would work well for the first half of the experiment and again 5cm3 of acid but this time only 1g of calcium carbonate. I chose to use small chips for the first experiment and 2 molar acid for the second experiment. I chose these values because at the both extremes of the experiments the reaction would be neither to fast to measure nor take so long that time would be wasted. Apparatus i. 1x 50cm3 measuring cylinder ii. 1x 10cm3 measuring cylinder iii. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that I measured very well in all aspects. I measured and checked everything I did. There were not any real unexpected results or anomalies to the patterns and trends discovered. The only result that was the individual replica results for was the 0.5 molar concentration experiment. The difference between replicas a and c was nearly 40 seconds. I am not too surprised with this result however because for the slower reactions the gaps between replicas tend to become larger. The longer an experiment goes on the less accurate it is likely to be. If I were to redo the experiment I would do more replicas of experiments to try to make it more accurate. I would also use a greater range of concentrations and surface areas to increase my range of results. This would make graphs more accurate and there would be more results to compare. I think that my results are strong enough to give a firm conclusion that an increase of either surface area or concentration will increase the rate of reaction. If I were to do further work I would do similar experiments using a catalyst and varying temperature to see the affects they cause on the rate of reaction. I would expect to find similar results, that they both increase the rate of reaction. Raj Purewal Chemistry SC1 2001 Page 1 of 10 ...read more.

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