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The reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Year 10 chemistry coursework The reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid Introduction There are six things that affect the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. They are: * The temperatures of the acid * The amount of acid * The concentration of the acid * The surface area of the calcium carbonate * The amount of calcium carbonate * The form of calcium carbonate. (It is available in three forms: powder, small stones or large stones) I have decided to investigate how the concentration of the hydrochloric acid affects the reaction rate between them. What I will need/Equipment list * Large marble (calcium carbonate) chips * Hydrochloric acid (2molar) * Water bath * Measuring cylinder * Beaker with bung and gas tube * Stopwatch * H2O * Scales Preliminary Experiment To see what happens between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid when they react together I shall carry out some preliminary experiments CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)= CaCl2 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) I shall conduct my preliminary experiments at five different concentrations. Preliminary results Concentration (%) Concentration Amount (CM3) Gas In 1 Minute (CM3) 100 50 45 80 40 34 60 30 28 40 20 22 20 10 14 Diagram Below is a labelled diagram of the experiment Background knowledge Key Variables * Surface area of solid - The surface area has an effect on the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

I think that the less concentrated the hydrochloric acid is the longer it will take for it to react with the calcium carbonate. I think this because the higher the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is, the higher the chance of the bonds breaking because the stronger the hydrochloric acid is the more energy the molecules have so they travel with more force which means the bonds break. If the molecules do not have much energy they will just bounce of the bonds harmlessly. The energy is needed to break the bonds and get the reaction started. Rates of reaction can be changed not only by catalysts but also by changes in temperature and by changes in concentrations. Raising the temperature increases the rate by increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules of the reactants, thereby increasing the number of collisions per second and the likelihood of transition states being achieved. Increasing the concentration can also increase the reaction rate by increasing the rate of molecular collisions. Concentration of the acid is higher so there is more chance of the particles colliding. Fair Test To make this a fair test I will need to keep all other variables the same apart from the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. This means the weight of marble chips should stay the same as well as using the same number of chips used; the temperature of the experiment should be the same ...read more.

Conclusion

a higher concentration of acid in the tube there is more gas produced, this shows my prediction: 'The higher the concentration or the hydrochloric acid Quicker the rate of reaction will be.' proved to be true, as the higher concentrations produced more gas, if there is more gas being produced over a certain period of time then the rate of reaction must be increasing also. Evaluation In my opinion my experiment was conducted well and I received fairly accurate results. There are a few things that could have been improved in my experiment; the first was the fact that I may have got trapped air bubbles in the measuring cylinder, which would have given some tests a slight advantage. Also the fact that I had to stop and start the stopwatch while taking the readings made it hard to get accurate results each an every time. An improvement to my experiment would be to have some help from a partner. The accuracy of my experiment was not great, it is hard to add the marble chips, hold the tube and start the time watch all at once. This would have affected the accuracy of my results. My results aren't very reliable because I can't do three things at once. Another improvement to make my results more reliable and accurate would be to pick another variable like temperature and see the result that has on the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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