• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

The relationship between flow rate and temperature difference

Extracts from this document...


Investigation of Flow rate and temperature difference Introduction My coursework is based on the principle of how an electric shower works. The common assumption is that in order to alter the temperature i.e. increase or decrease it, there is a heating implement in place which does this, but my investigation has proven this is not the variable. There is a heating implement but the heat is kept constant. The temperature of the water coming out of the shower depends on the flow rate of the water. This investigation also involves the concept of energy transfer. The conservation law of energy states that "energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can only be transferred from 1 body to another through a medium". In this case the energy is being transferred is heat. The transfer is heat energy from the hot water in the metal container by the metal container ( medium - free electrons in metal ) to the water flowing through the pipe. I am investigating the effect of a changing flow rate on the temperature difference in a pipe. It will be important for me to carry out my experiment precisely and get a reasonable set of results because of all the variables involved such as temperature, and for the flow resistance in the pipe - viscosity, density, friction with pipe, specific heat capacity e.t.c. Factors affecting my investigation Viscosity The resistance to flow in a liquid can be characterised in terms of the viscosity of the fluid if the flow is smooth. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. It is commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance to pouring. Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction. Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while vegetable oil is "thick" having a higher viscosity. ...read more.


I kept the volume of water, and the temperature of the water in it, constant. The tricky part of my setup was keeping the rubber tubing wrapped around the metal container. I tried various methods, cello tape first of all but the adhesive property of the cello tape was lost once it came in contact with the water and it did come in contact with water often, seeing as my experiment was based around water. Finally I had to improvise and I smeared glue all around the metal container and then set the tubing around it and held it in place with a bit of glue at this point the tubing was stuck around it and then I froze it, by placing it in the freezer and leaving it for approximately 26 hours. By this time the glue was hard and dry and the tube was properly in place. I had some water in the metal container kept at a constant temperature in this case 70 degrees. All I did was pass water through the top opening, this water was kept at a constant temperature. It then flowed around the pipe gathering energy from the metal container the water in the metal container was as previously stated at constant temperature. This water was heated by an old boiling ring which was placed in the middle of the metal container not in direct contact with the edges of the container. The same problem arose of finding a way to regulate the heat giving of by the heating implement i.e the boiling ring, I solved this by starting the experiment only when the temperature was at 70 degrees and then estimating the time it took for it to rise by a degree ( this was done roughly and mentally ). I counted roughly in my head the time taken for it to rise from 70-71 degrees. ...read more.


Logic says this is a good set of results because as the flow rate decreases it means that the water flows slower in and out of the tube meaning that there is an increased time taken between water being poured in and then out. This also means that the water is in the tube and in contact with the radiation of heat energy from the metal container for a longer time. There is an increased energy transfer, if the power were to be worked out it would be constant because there is an increase in the energy transferred AND also the time taken, both these would cancel out. The flow rate could have been improved in a variety of ways like o Using a tube with less friction o Pumping the water in faster, e.t.c From the results it can be said that there is an inverse relationship (as one quantity increase, the other decreases). The flow rate is inversely proportional to the temperature difference. This could be shown mathematically by the formula F = k T Key F - flow rate of water T - temperature difference k - constant of proportionality I am going to plot 2 sets of graphs, the first one showing the temperature difference on the y axis and flow rate on the x axis, this should give me a graph with a negative (decreasing) gradient and the second the temperature difference on the y axis and the inverse of the flow rate on the x axis and this should give me a graph with a straight line from origin. I will now try and find the value of k, this is going to be done by finding the gradient of the graph and then finding the inverse of that figure. Finding the gradient of a graph is done by applying the formula y1-y2 = k x1-x2 0.856 - 0.536 = 0.32 = 0.1793, 1 = 0.1793, k = 1 9.500 - 11.350 -1.85 k 0.1793 K = and this has the unit of cm3/s per degrees Celsius. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Find the viscosity of water using a rigid glass tube (capillary). By further calculations, ...

    The density (?) of water is required as is the gravitational force. h = height of water to capillary = 51.9cm = 0.519m ? = density of water = 1000 kg m-3 g = gravitational force = 9.81 ms-2 ?P = h?g = 0.519 x 1000 x 9.81 = 5091.39Pa

  2. Ashland Oil Inc.: Trouble at Floreffe

    Press release A forgoes the attorney-client privilege, exposes them to legal liabilities and brings right to the forefront the issues and facts concerning the spill. Press Release A apologizes for the accident and admits fault, as well as, lists out the mistakes it made.

  1. Nuclear Power

    * Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive. * Some people feel that covering the landscape with these towers is unsightly. * Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds. Splat! * Can affect television reception if you live nearby.

  2. Effect of coppicing on Abundance of Violets.

    The 93 plot was also quite abundant in other species like self heal and archangel. Although violets are shade-loving plants they still require light to drive photosynthesis. As stated earlier, photosynthesis involves two reactions light dependant and light independent. When light intensity increases so do the reactions.

  1. Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook ...

    in the 19th century. The purpose of the Fleet was to deliver water to be used by the steam turbines in the near by railway station down stream.1 It runs through a clearing in woodlands. It is relatively unpolluted with nitrates and phosphate levels within the normal guidelines.

  2. My investigation is to find out the rate of which heat transfer happens. Heat ...

    An example of this is a vacuum flask. Convection: This is the main way in which heat energy is transferred through liquids and gas. (Liquids and gases are called fluids be cause they are free to move.) When part of a fluid is heated it expands and becomes less dense.

  1. I am investigating the rate at which heat energy is lost and heat transfer ...

    Type of surface As an emitter As an absorber of Examples of radiation radiation Dull black good good Cooling fans on the back of a refrigerator are dull black to radiate away more energy Bright shiny poor poor Marathon runners wrap themselves in shiny blankets to prevent thermal transfer by radiation.

  2. Generating electricity

    At the moment, they are being buried in places safe to bury them in, but this still creates controversy. Hydro-electric Plants Two basic types of hydroelectric plants are in service. One is a run-of-river plant, which takes energy from a fast moving current to spin the turbine.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work