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The resistance of a wire.

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I have decided to choose a factor that will affect the resistance of a wire.
I will do this by going through all of the factors that affect the resistance of a wire and I would measure each factor to find out which would be the most effective and easiest factor to measure. Below is a list of factors and reasons of how they affect the resistance of a wire. From this list of factors I will only pick one factor to investigate.

Resistance occurs when the electrons travelling along a wire collide with the atoms of the wire. These collisions slow down the flow of electrons causing resistance. Resistance is a measure of how hard it is to move the electrons through the wire.


1) Temperature

When the temperature of a metal increases the resistance of that metal increases. This is because when the temperature increases the atoms of the metal vibrate more vigorously because of the increase in energy. This means that the electrons have more difficulty getting through the wire as they collide with the atoms which are in their pathway. This increases the amount of collisions therefore there is more resistance. However it is hard to keep the temperature exactly the same as the room temperature might change from day to day. It is essential to use a low voltage because it means a low current that will not heat up the wires.

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The unit of resistance is Ohms and the symbol is:

The higher the resistance, the lower the current. If there is high resistance, to get the same current a higher voltage will be needed to provide an extra push for the electricity.

Some metals have less resistance than others. Wires are always made out of copper because copper has a low resistance and therefore it is a good conductor. The length and width of a wire also has an effect. In this investigation I will investigate how the diameter of a wire will affect the resistance in the circuit.

Resistance opposes the flow of an electric current around a circuit so that energy is required to push the charged particles around the circuit. The circuit itself can resist the flow of particles if the wires are either very thin or very long.
E.g. The filament an electric light bulb

Ohm's law

He discovered relationship that the amount of steady current through a large number of materials is directly proportional to the potential difference, or voltage, across the materials. Thus, if the voltage V (in units of volts) between two ends of a wire made from one of these materials is tripled, the current I (amperes) also triples; and the quotient V/I remains constant. The quotient V/I for a given piece of material is called its resistance, R, measured in units named ohms. The resistance of materials for which Ohm's law is valid does not change over enormous ranges of voltage and current. Ohm's law may be expressed mathematically as V/I = R.

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The resistance of a wire depends on the number of collisions the electrons have with the atoms of the material, so if there is a larger number of atoms there will be a larger number of collisions which will increase the resistance of the wire. If a length of a wire contains a certain number of atoms when that length is increased the number of atoms will also increase.


From my results table and graph I can see that my results that I collected are very reliable. I know this because my results table does not show any individual anomalous results this means that I did not have to leave any results out of my averages because they were anomalous. Also on the graph I can see that none of the averages plotted are anomalous because all the averages lie along the same straight line.
During my experiment I have noticed several modifications I could make to improve on the Investigation if I was to repeat it.
The first of these modifications would be the circuit that I would use. To be more accurate with my results I would use the circuit layout below:





Instead of connecting the voltmeter to the main circuit I would connect it to the wire which is being tested. I would do this so that the voltmeter is measuring the voltage of just the wire being tested and not the wires of the main circuit as well.

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