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The second most abundant element on Earth is the nonmetal silicon, which makes up about 28 percent of the Earth's crust.

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Introduction

SILICON. The second most abundant element on Earth is the nonmetal silicon, which makes up about 28 percent of the Earth's crust. It occurs only in such combined forms as silica (silicon dioxide) and silicate rocks and minerals. The most common form of silica is quartz, which includes sand and flint. Silicates are salts in which silica is combined with oxygen and other elements, such as aluminum, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, and potassium. Silicon has a strong affinity for oxygen. Pure silicon can be obtained by breaking down its combined form. It is prepared commercially by reducing (removing the oxygen from) the oxide by reaction with a carbon-based substance such as coke in electric furnaces. Some silicon is obtained by reducing silicon dioxide with aluminum. Amorphous silicon, prepared in the laboratory by heating silica with magnesium powder, is a dark-brown crystalline powder. Pure silicon is a hard, dark-gray solid with a metallic luster. Its crystalline structure is the same as that of the diamond form of carbon, with which silicon shares many chemical and physical properties. ...read more.

Middle

In many food containers, however, plastic coatings have replaced tin. And with the increased use of aluminum in making cans, the use of tin has dropped sharply. The protective tin coating may be as thin as 15/1,000,000 inch (0.000038 centimeter). Steel for cans is plated by dipping sheets of it in molten tin or by passing continuous strips on high-speed rubber rollers through an electrolytic tinning bath. Kitchen utensils are electroplated with a thicker coating of tin (see Electrochemistry). Terneplate for roofs is made by immersing sheets of steel in a molten mixture of lead and tin. Tin is a constituent of alloys having low melting points, such as bronze, babbitt metal, type metal and solder metal (see Alloy). Tin alloys are used in collapsible tubes, though toothpaste is now sold in plastic containers. Tin chloride is used in dyeing and weighting silk and as a stabilizer for perfumes. Tin can also form a bond with carbon, as in the more than 500 organotin compounds. ...read more.

Conclusion

Most imported tin comes from Brazil, Bolivia, China, and Indonesia. The use of tin alloyed with copper to make bronze ushered in the Bronze Age of civilization (see Bronze). To get tin the Phoenicians sailed from their Mediterranean homes as far as the British Isles. Symbol Sn Atomic Number 50 Atomic Weight 118.69 Group in Periodic Table IVa Specific Gravity at 68? F (20? C) 5.75-7.31 Boiling Point 4,118? F (2,270? C) Melting Point 450? F (232? C) Germanium, brittle silver element predicted in 1871 by Mendeleev but not discovered until 1886 by Clemens Winkler. It is used as superconductor in electronics; window and lens component in equipment to measure infrared radiation; component of camera lenses and microscopes; and in transistors and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. It is found as a part of the minerals argyrodite, germanite, and renierite and in coal. It can kill certain harmful bacteria without causing toxicity to humans and is being studied as a therapeutic agent. Properties of Germanium Symbol Ge Atomic number 32 Atomic weight 72.59 Group in periodic table IVa Boiling point 4,892o F (2,700o C) Melting point 1,719o F (937.2o C) Specific gravity 5.323 ...read more.

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