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The Solar System.

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The Solar System

Our solar system contains 9 planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Mercury, Venus, Earth and mars are known as the inner planets and Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are the outer planets. All of the planets orbit our Star the Sun.

The Sun

The sun is 4.5billion years old; it could have over 1 million earths in it. The photosphere (the visible layer of the sun) is 6,000°C and in the core the temperature is 15,000,000°C.

The sun has enough fuel to last for five billion years after that it will start to swell up and eventually swallow the earth in its heat.

An eclipse of the sun is when the earth passes throw the moons shadow.

The sun is a star; it is not as hot as the other stars because they are white hot.



Mercury is the second smallest planet in the solar system; it is even smaller than some moons. Mercury is the closes planet to the sun. Mercury is as cold as -184o C at night and 427o C in the day. Mercury has no moons or rings.

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The earth is made up of many layers the crust – the top layer of the earth is solid rock it can be up to 70km thick it is divided up into many plates, Mantle – the mantle is the second layer it is 2.900km thick and 8700oC, Outer core – Made up of liquid iron and gets as hot as 2200oC, Inner core – the centre of the earth is 4,500oC and is made of liquid iron and nickel.



Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is the most similar heat to Earths -129oC to 0oC. Some people think that Aliens live on mars. Many scientists think that there was once/is water on Mars. It takes 1.88 years to orbit the Sun. It is 35million miles from earth and up to 249million km from the Sun.

Mars has some of the toughest terrain with volcanoes up to23 km and valleys of 6km. The thought dead volcano Olympus Mons rises 23km.



Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system the diameter measuring 142,800 km. Jupiter has 17 moons and a ring system. Jupiter’s temperature is –150C. The gravity is 2.

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William Herschel discovered Uranus.



Neptune is normally the eighth but is some times the ninth because it sometimes it crosses Pluto’s orbit. It is as cold as

-210o C. Neptune had eight moons and a fin ring system. The planet can be 4.54billion km from the sun and 4.3billion km from the earth. It takes 165 years for Neptune to do a full orbit around the sun.

One of Neptune’s major moons is Triton it is an ice moon with a water environment like the north poll it might have life on it.

Neptune was the name that ancient Romans gave to the Greek god of the sea and earthquakes.



Pluto is the furthest planet from the Sun, an amazing 7.4billion km at times. Pluto’s only moon Charon is a similar size to Pluto only 12,200km away from each other and they even orbit each over; it is like a double planet. Pluto is 229oC below freezing. It takes 248 earth years to do one orbit around the sun.

Pluto’s strange orbit causes it to come within the orbit of Neptune. Pluto was the eighth planet from the Sun from February 7th, 1979 through February 11, 1999. Now Pluto will remain the ninth planet through the 23rd century.


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