• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The structure and arrangement of leafs

Extracts from this document...


The structure and arrangement of leafs Leaf from a tree: below is a short description of an ordinary leaf. This is the most common set up for a leaf. Each cell has their important task for survival. The characteristic of an ordinary terrestrial leaf is: The leaf is wide and thin to expose as much photosynthetic cells as possible. The leaf has a waxy cuticle to protect the leaf from losing to much water. Below the cuticle is the epidermis that protects the plant from pathogens. The cuticle is secreted by epidermis. Under the epidermis palisade mesophyll can be found. They contain photosynthetic cells called chloroplast. Chloroplast are solar- powered-food-making cells for the rest of the plant. These absorb sunlight to join carbon dioxide and water molecules. The final product is glucose molecules. The by-product of this process is oxygen. Below the palisade mesophyll there are several types of cells: Xylem vessels are heavy lignifified and they are conducting water and mineral salts to the rest of the leaf. Phloem sleave tubes remove products of photosyntasis, imports amino acid and redistribute ions (xylem and phloem are together vascular bundles). ...read more.


Marram grass Marram grass has adapted to survive life on a beach where it faces challenges such as sand blast, drought and a salty environment. When it rains fresh water drains quickly away in the sand. The marram grass has made many adaptations to retrain water. The plant has developed some salt resistant. The marram grass is surrounded by water but fresh water is hard to come by on a beach. Marram grass has developed shallow root system and is dependent on condensation from fresh water in the sand dunes. In turn this helps the sand to stay on the beach. The roots suck up the water and distribute it to the rest of the plant. If the marram grass would have big leafs as the water lily or a tree leaf the marram grass would loose the water quickly due to evaporation. So marram grass has developed many additional adaptations to protect the water is has retained. The leaf itself it long, thin and rolled up. It has developed a thick waxy cuticle to reduce transpiration and protects it leaf from sandblast. ...read more.


d) Look at the object from the side of the stage and use the lens adjuster making sure the lens is just above the object. e) Look down the eye piece and adjust the focus until the object is in focus. f) Change the magnification to a higher power. Adjust the focus until you se the slide clearly. 2a) 1 Epidermis, 2 Collenchyma, 3 Parenchyma, 4 Xylem, 5 Sclerenchyma, 6 Cambium 2b) Epidermis has tough fibers. Epidermis protects the plant from pathogens and forces like wind. The epidermis in helianthus is one cell thick but has developed small, thin hair. This is to preserve water in the plant by limiting air movement and to reflect light. The epidermis also produces the cuticle. This is to protect the plant further from water loss and invasion against bacteria and pathogens. Sclerenchyma is like a cap of the vascular bundle. They have developed in to supporting fibers that offer the plant strength. They are heavy lignified and have no living content. Cambium is a non-specified cell cells that are found in the middle of xylem or phloem. They are square like cells that can either divide to xylem or phoem, depending where the cells are needed. Source: www.microscopy-uk.net http://www.seftoncoast.org.uk www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de Adaptations of Plants For Mr. Love By Jaenette Satherlund ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Compare stomatal densities of the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf.

    FAIR TEST To make this experiment a fair test, I will conduct the experiment on different areas on both sides of the leaf to see if this affects the density of stomata. Also four different people will count the number of stomata, so to get an unbiased number and then to calculate an average.

  2. The investigation is aiming to look at transpiration.

    Secondly it could be because for my mesophyte experiment I did not cover the lower layer of the leaves with Vaseline. This might have lead to loss of water through the lower layer {more stomata situated at the lower surface of the leaf}; meanwhile for my xerophytes experiment the lower surface of the leaf was smeared with Vaseline.

  1. Plant adaptations to habitats.

    long tap roots to reach the water table, these phreatophytes can have roots of 50m e.g. acacias and mesquite, tamarisks * horizontally extending roots are common in a sandy habitats and in shallow soil overlying harder substrate. Rope-like roots may extend for several meters (5-20m)

  2. Find out where the stomata are located, on the upper or lower epidermis of ...

    If you attach a perometer to a leaf and take measurements of its resistance to airflow at intervals, you will find that there is a generally less resistance during daylight hours than at night. This is because the stomata open during the day and close at night.

  1. The aim of this science investigation is to find out where the stomata are ...

    This in turn causes water to be drawn into them from surrounding epidermal cells resulting in the opening of a pore. However this theory is unsatisfactory. It is true that in the light sugar (sucrose mainly) accumulates in the guard cells, but the stomata response is too rapid for it to be explained merely by a resumption of photosynthesis.

  2. The effects of organic effluent from the seweage on the biodiversty in a freshwater ...

    RESULTS TABLE: (RAW DATA) BIOTIC INDEX RECORD ANIMAL BIOTIC SCORE ASHBY LAGOON 3 RAISED POND Alderfly larva 5 - - - Backswimmer 5 5 - 5 Blackfly larva 5 - - - Cased caddis larva 7 - - - Caseless caddis larva 5 - - - Cranefly larva 5 -

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work