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The The Molecular Formula of Succinic acid

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Introduction

The Molecular Formula of Succinic acid Problem 'Describe in detail how you would determine the relative formula mass of Succinic acid' The relative formula mass is the mass of 1 molecule of succinic acid compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12. This is obtained by adding together the relative atomic masses of the atoms within the molecule according to its written formula. However we do not know the exact formula: HOOC(CH )nCOOH Where n is a whole number between 1 and 4 So to calculate the relative formula mass I must use the formula m = n �Mr and rearrange it to make Mr the subject Mr = m n However I do not know the number of moles for a given mass. I can calculate this by preparing a standard solution of the acid and performing a titration experiment. Firstly I would like to calculate a likely value of the relative formula mass given the information above. Suppose n = 3 then HOOC(CH ) COOH and Mr = 1+(2 x 16)+12+(3x12)+(3x2)+12+(2x16)+1 = 132 To perform the titration I have chosen to use equal concentrations of acid and alkali at 0.1mols/dm�. ...read more.

Middle

Once this has been completed I can proceed with the titration. In this experiment I will use a solution of Sodium Hydroxide to standardise my solution of Succinic acid. Equipment requirements include: * Distilled water wash bottle * Sodium Hydroxide (0.1mols/dm�) * Succinic acid (0.1mols/dm� approx.) * Phenolphalein indicator * Burette (50cm�) and stand * Conical flask (250cm�) * Pipette (25cm�) and filler * Small beaker and funnel It is a good idea to perform a rough titration to get an idea of where the end point will be. Firstly all the equipment must be thoroughly rinsed with distilled water to minimise the risk of impurities affecting the reaction. Then fill the burette with acid up to the 0 mark. This should be done below your head for example on a stool to prevent an accident. Pipette 25cm� of the sodium hydroxide solution into the conical flask and add two drops of indicator. Begin to slowly add the acid, continually swirling the mixture. As you near the end point add the acid drop wise so you know exactly when the reaction is complete and consequently gain more accurate results. When the whole solution has just turned completely pink then the reaction is complete and no more acid should be added. ...read more.

Conclusion

if your method of recording is not that reliable. Errors can occur with measurements using certain apparatus, the following are the maximum errors you may incur: 1dm� standard flask � 0.80 cm� 250cm� standard flask � 0.30cm� 25cm� pipette � 0.06 cm� 50cm� burette � 0.10cm� The value is the difference between two points for example using a 250cm� flask you might measure to 250.1cm� or 249.8cm�, a difference of 0.30cm�. Potential hazards and safety precautions Experiments involving acids and alkalis are always dangerous as both are corrosive but we can minimize the risks by following safety precautions. * Always wear safety goggles when near chemicals * Wear gloves when handling vessels containing acids or alkalis as both are corrosive, the severity of which depends on the concentration of the acid/alkali * When filling the burette bring it to below eye level to eliminate the risk of tipping acid on your head * Never 'suck up' a solution when filling a pipette * Don't low the last drop out of the pipette, the alkali it contains in this experiment is very harmful * Don't eat or drink around areas where acids or alkalis have been used. Don't eat after handling a vessel containing an acid or alkali without first washing your hands. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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