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The Use Of Enzymes In Industry

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Introduction

The Use of Enzymes in Industry Skills I and J Enzymes are extremely useful and therefore are used in many industries. The reason for them being so useful is that they work quickly and efficiently to speed up the rate of many different reactions without going through changes themselves; this also makes them reusable.[5]This is all down to them being biological catalysts. The food industry is a major industry which relies on enzymes and probably the main place in this country where they are used. Throughout the industry there are numerous different areas which involve enzymes to make the process quicker. Some of these are; Fruit, Dairy, Brewing, Starch and Baking. Throughout the process of making fruit juices enzymes are used; as fruits contain pectins which are polysaccharides and cause cloudiness in the juices. To reduce this pectin and increase the amount of juice degrading enzymes are added at the pressing stage as the fruits are being modified. Therefore customers get better juice which isn't as cloudy and the company's gain more profit as they are making a larger quantity of juice.[7] Dairy products like cheese are made with the help of two enzymes, pepsin and chymosin. ...read more.

Middle

On the other hand alcohol hasn't always been made using these enzymes but malt. Enzymes became to replace this as they are much smaller so they are easier to store and as a result of this more of them can be stored.[4] In the baking industry a common industrial process which involves the use of enzymes is that of bread making. The flour used to make bread contains numerous biological molecules.eg;lipids and polyasaccharides. The dough is made up of; flour,water,salt,yeast,fat and sugar. Before fermentation the flour is too complex for the yeast as it is mainly made up of starch and sucrose. Therefore amylase (breaks down starch) and invertase, enzymes created by the yeast break down the starch molecules into sugars. The yeast then feeds off these two sugars as it creates two biproducts; alcohol and carbon dioxide. From these the alcohol evaporates whilst the bread is baking and the CO2 makes the dough rise as the gasses filter through the dough. The biological name for this process is fermentation.[10]. ...read more.

Conclusion

be damaged in the process.[1][6] Enzymes have also brought the leather industry along way over time as to soften the leather they used to use pigeon and dog faeces to rub into the leather, however in 1905 they began to use a new process which used the protease which is extracted from the pancreases of cows and pigs.[5] Whilst treating yarn, hydrogen peroxide is used to bleach the yarn before the enzyme catalase is used to break it down into; hydrogen peroxide, water and oxygen. This meant that less amounts of rinse water is produced from the elimination of reducing agents.[3] It is the use of enzymes in industry that we have to thank for the fashion industries progression as designers now have the choice of possibilities for different shades and colours.[1] In conclusion, enzymes have a positive effect on industry today for numerous reasons. They are no harm to the environment as they are biodegradable and can be reused, they are efficient, and now millions of reactions are speeded up so that processes are completed much quicker to provide for the ever growing population. ...read more.

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Response to the question

This essay outlines the uses of enzymes in industry well, however this is no exploration of the disadvantages or costs. I like how the essay uses a number of examples to highlight the use of enzymes, showing good levels of ...

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Response to the question

This essay outlines the uses of enzymes in industry well, however this is no exploration of the disadvantages or costs. I like how the essay uses a number of examples to highlight the use of enzymes, showing good levels of application. I would have liked to have to seen a bit more scientific explanation of the process whereby enzymes catalyse reactions, etc.

Level of analysis

The analysis is sound, offering insight into how enzymes can be used. I liked how the enzyme used was referenced, but this is not the case in all of the paragraphs - it would have been nice to know the enzyme involved in cheese production, for example. The basic advantages of enzymes are discussed, but there is no exploration of higher level advantages such as pure products, more stable enzymes, etc. Although immobilisation is an A-Level topic, a brief discussion would add weight to any argument. Most importantly is the lack of limitations in this essay! Without exploring how enzyme immobilisation is expensive, a skilful process, etc, there is no evaluation involved. I would've liked to have seen a short introduction explaining how enzyme-substrate complexes are formed to display a good foundation of scientific understanding.

Quality of writing

This essay is structured well, but in parts the language used is very colloquial or poorly worded. For example "now millions of reactions are speeded up" will only lose marks for written communication, and may hinder the marker's opinion on the scientific content. It was nice to see referencing being used, although they have included numbered references such as "[5]" yet the bibliography is not numbered.


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