• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27

This investigation is associated with the bounce of a squash ball. I will be investigating 4 different types of squash balls.

Extracts from this document...



Contents Page


Background Knowledge


The Equation Of State

The Kinetic Theory Of Gases

More Physics Of Balls


How Ball Is Made

Testing Of The Ball

Ball Behaviour

Sources For Background Knowledge



Surface The Ball Is Dropped On To

Height Ball Is Dropped From

Rebound Height

Decisions On Variables


Proposed Method

Preliminary Testing

Drop Height

How Many Temperatures








Step By Step Procedure




This investigation is associated with the bounce of a squash ball. I will be investigating 4 different types of squash balls, which have different, bounce properties and compare them to each other and relate them to why each different type of squash ball is used. The relationship will be associated with how different balls are used at different levels of proficiency in the game of squash i.e. the squash balls that don’t bounce much will probably used at a less proficient level whereas the balls with the most bounce will be used at professional level. The different coloured squash balls I will be using are; white, yellow, red and blue, and I will be finding out what the difference is between them.

Background Knowledge


The three scientists Boyle, Amontons and Charles investigated the relationship between gas, volume and temperature. Boyle discovered that for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, the pressure is inversely proportional to its volume. So in equation form this is:

pV = constant if T is constant

Amontons discovered that for a fixed mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is proportional to the Kelvin temperature. So in equation form this is:

p ∝ T if V is constant

Shown below this is represented on graphs in (oC) and (K).




       -273                            0



  1. T/K

Charles discovered that for a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure, the volume is proportional to the Kelvin temperature. So in equation form this is:

V ∝ T if p is constant.

The Equation Of State

...read more.


Testing Of The Ball

The current WSF Specification for the Standard Yellow Dot Championship Squash Ball as it appears in Appendix 7 of the Rules of Squash dates from October 1990, apart from a minor amendment made in July 1995, and determines the permitted diameter, weight, stiffness, seam strength and rebound resilience of the championship ball. No specifications are set for other types of ball, "which may be used by players of greater of lesser ability or in court conditions which are hotter or colder than those used to determine the yellow dot specification". But how are balls tested to ensure that they meet these specifications?

The testing procedure itself states somewhat confusingly that: "For the purposes of inspection, balls manufactured from the same mix shall be arranged in batches of 3000 numbers or part thereof manufactured in one shift in a day." Fifteen balls are then chosen at random from each batch and divided into three groups of five balls. One group is tested for diameter, weight, and stiffness; another group for seam strength; the third group for rebound resilience.

First the 15 selected balls must be left in the laboratory for 24 hours to ‘condition’ them to a temperature of 23oC. Their diameter, measured perpendicular to the seam, must be between 39.5mm and 40.5mm, and their weight between 23 and 25g. To be measured for stiffness the balls are held between two plates with the seam parallel to the plates and compressed at a rate of 45–55mm per minute. They are compressed by 20mm six times, the test measurement being made on the sixth deformation only. The stiffness of a ball is calculated by measuring the compressive force at the point where it has been deformed by 16mm and dividing that by 16 to give a ‘force per millimetre’. The result must be between 2.8 and 3.

...read more.



Also I was pleased with my idea of using holders, which attach to the squash ball to hold it under water to stop it from floating meaning the temperature would not be being applied to the whole of the squash ball. Also I kept the ball in the water for sufficient time for the water to heat the ball up to the desired temperature.

Sources of error could be due to the ball not being able to maintain the correct temperature and an electric water bath would have been a better method but this was also is a limitation, as we don’t have many at our sixth form. Really every piece of equipment including the tongs surface the ball bounced onto would all need to be at the same temperature for the experiment to work really accurately and fairly as the ball gradually cooled down during the course of a test.

I feel I did enough temperatures to give me enough points for my graph but I would like to have tried more temperatures either side of the ones I did but there are limitations again here as for a safety reason I cant go above 80oC as the rubber ball would start to melt and also getting below 10oC is very difficult.

Improvements have already been stated but further testing I would like to do is firstly the fourth ball, which I have already mentioned. I would like to test the polymer materials of each ball individually other than bouncing them i.e. stretching the materials.

Adam Grice        Physics Coursework        Page

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the height of a ball drop affect the bounce?

    3 star(s)

    If I was to do this for real there shouldn't be as much randomness in the results, however I do not have the facilities to do this in full. Temperature (c ) 1st Drop of Ball 2nd Drop of Ball 3rd Drop of Ball Average 20 50.9 48.9 63.3* 49.9

  2. Peer reviewed

    Investigating factors that affect the bounce height of a squash ball

    5 star(s)

    Keep the ball temperature (room temperature) the same in each experiment, and carry out all experiments on the same day to prevent variations in room temp affecting the results. Surface onto which the ball is dropped Different surfaces may disperse energy at different rates, so different amounts of energy may

  1. Bouncing Ball Experiment

    upon the time taken to conduct the experiment and any other factors that may become apparent during the preliminary experiment. Parallax error will be avoided by dropping the ball one time that will not be measured and placing a blob of blue tack onto the meter rule at the approximate height it bounced to.

  2. Investigation into the effect of temperature on viscosity

    The measuring distance must be kept constant throughout the whole experiment this is ensured by the two measuring markings. A constant temperature throughout the whole fluid must be achieved; this can best be done by quickly transferring the measuring cylinder from the heat source to the workbench and conducting the experiment right then.

  1. The effect of the temperature on the viscosity of the syrup.

    The syrup added would be at room temperature and not the temperature that is required. Diagram Improved method using for Final experiment 1) Measure the mass of the measuring cylinder using a weighing machine 2) 5 cm above from the surface of the measuring cylinder mark a line using a marker.

  2. Investigating Impact Craters

    Once again the same 16.6g ball was used. By changing the vertical height, the ball's energy would by affected. It would be sensible to predict that more energy would make for longer, deeper craters. This graph is certainly unexpected. The crater length does indeed vary proportionally to the vertical height, but the crater depth appears to have no relationship whatsoever with the height (therefore the entry speed).

  1. Factors affecting the bounce of a ball

    Repeat this procedure with all the other balls 4. Then repeat the procedure by dropping the ball from the 2m mark 5. The experiment may be repeated several times if time allows. Fair Test: ==> The size of all the balls used was the same with only slight variation.

  2. An investigation to find how temperature affects the bounciness of a squash ball.

    Also the rubber will be easier to bend and therefore less energy is lost through the deformation of the squash ball when it hits the ground. * The temperature of the squash ball. I expect that if the temperature of the ball is increased the higher the bounce of the ball.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work