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Thyroid Cancer Research Project

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why is thyroid cancer a problem? 1.1A)Thyroid cancer is a problem because it has an increasing trend over time. Moreover, Recurrence can occur at any time, even Figure(1) showing the thyroid Figure (2) showing the increasing trend of thyroid cancer decades after initial therapy.Studies now show that many late cancer ?recurrences? may actually be cases of persistent tumor that had fallen below testing detection limits for as long as decades. Delaying the initial diagnosis of thyroid cancer longer than 1 year increases mortality rates significantly. The mortality risk worsens as the delay becomes longer. 1.1b) The exact cause is unknown, but a growing amount of research point is to some risk factors as: (3) Word count:103 Figure(3) showing the incidence rates of thyroid cancer in different countries with realtion to sex Source: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/thyroid/incidence/ A figure showing how age affects the incidence of thyroid cancer in males and females Source: http://www.medinfographics.com/cancer-statistics/thyroid-cancer/thyroid-cancer-incidence-by-sex-and-age/ Figure (3) showing age standardized incidence rates by country in males and females Figure (4) Age specific incidence rates for females in Cyprus,Egypt,Jordan,Israel and US SEER. Table(1) showing the number of cases,Age distribution,and age standardized incidence rates,by age and sex,in Cyprus,Israel,Egypt,Jordan,and US SEER-1996-2001 Source: https://nmtracking.unm.edu/health_effects/cancer/cancer-thyroid_data/ Figure(5) showing the incidence of thyroid cancer in different races in males and females. ...read more.

Middle

Ethical implications: An ethical implication in radioiodine therapy is that the staff may be exposed to radiations.Moreover,if certain nerves or muscles were damaged or removed during surgery,the patient may suffer from voice problems or one shoulder shorter than the other,and patients may not be aware about those side effects,thus making this an ethical and social implication. 2.2a)Advantages and disadvantages of treatment: Advantages of surgery:Although it?s true that some of the side effects from the surgery can be difficult to handle, the prognosis and survival rate for thyroid cancer patients who have undergone the procedure is excellent. The best long-term advantage of thyroid cancer surgery is the gift of life. (21) Disadvantages of surgery:surgery has some disadvantages as patients are often uncomfortable for the first few days after surgery.Moreover, It is common for patients to feel tired or weak.Also,after surgery to remove the thyroid and nearby tissues or organs, such as the parathyroid glands, patients may need to take medicine (thyroid hormone) or vitamin and mineral supplements (vitamin D and calcium) to replace the lost functions of these organs. In a few cases, certain nerves or muscles may be damaged or removed during surgery. If this happens, the patient may have voice problems or one shoulder may be lower than the other. ...read more.

Conclusion

TKIs used in the treatment of thyroid cancers and the corresponsing Word count:1734 Word count:1740 Table(6) showing studies and their conclusions on Tyrosine kinase as a treatment Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib 2 (Caprelsa®) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial. Earlier this year, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vandetanib for the treatment of patients with MTC based on initial findings from the phase III trial. MTC is a rare cancer, accounting for only 5 percent of all thyroid cancer cases, and radiation and chemotherapy have limited effects once the cancer progresses to an advanced stage. The double-blinded trial enrolled 331 patients with MTC who were randomly assigned to receive vandetanib or a placebo. All patients had locally advanced disease or distant metastases. If there was evidence that their disease was progressing, patients in the placebo arm could opt to receive open-label vandetanib. Word count:1879 In addition to the improvement in progression-free survival, the objective response rate was higher and several other disease-related measures were better in the vandetanib arm than in the placebo arm. One of the drug's targets is RET kinase, and the measurable response rate appeared to be higher in patients with RET mutations than in those without mutations. Because so few patients were defined as not having a RET mutation, the response rate in RET mutation-negative patients remains uncertain. ...read more.

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3 star(s)

This essay shows good research but needs to be rewritten to process the information.
1. The essay lacks structure, which should be clear and fluid.
2. Although a lot of the images are relevant they are not discussed in the text.
3. A lot of information has been copied and pasted into this essay - this all needs to be rewritten.
4. The range of information sources needs to be limited. Only look for information that is relevant in this country.
*** (3 stars)

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 22/05/2013

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