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# Titration (Acid &amp;#150; Base Reaction)

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Introduction

TITLE: TITRATION (ACID - BASE REACTION) AIM: to determine the w/w % of ammonia in the household sample of cloudy ammonia provided. CONCLUSION: The w/w the w/w % of ammonia in the household sample of cloudy ammonia is 4.07% COLLABORATOR: Chris Mortimer BACKGROUND: The reactions stoichiometry are Na2CO3 + 2HCl --> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 And NH3 + HCl --> NH4Cl Number of moles = mass / molar mass Number of moles = concentration multiply by volume Concentration1 multiply by Volume1 = Concentration2 multiply by Volume2 (C1V1=C2V2) Concentration = number of moles / volume Titration is the process of determining the volume of one reactant solution, which exactly reacts, with a given amount of another reactant. All the apparatus were cleaned before the experiment start because there might be some particle or solution left in the apparatus. The burettes were used to measure the solutions instead of measuring cylinder because the burettes can deliver more accurate in the small amount of solutions The apparatus were cleaned by the solution that's going to be used one or two times before the actual experiment start because there might be some different solution left in the apparatus so that can make the apparatus become neutralize and ready for the solution and experiment for more accurate result. The eye level readings have to be exactly the meniscus mark to deliver the most accurate measurement. ...read more.

Middle

The mass of ammonia per 100g of solution was calculated and recorded (4.07%) Data: The Na2CO3 obtained in the patty pan was 2.653 grams The end point when dissolved Na2CO3titrated by diluted HCl were The end point when diluted ammonia titrated by diluted HCl were 23.5 mL 5.5 23.5 mL 5.5 24.5 mL 5.4 ---------------average endpoint used in calculation = 23.5 ---------------average endpoint used in calculation = 5.47 Analysis: FIND THE CONCENTRATION OF ACID HCl Na2CO3 + 2HCl --> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 Number of moles = mass / molar mass 2.503 * 10-3 = 0.2653 / 105.986 (0.2653 was used because it's only 1/10 of the whole Na2CO3 in petty pan) The number of moles = 2.503 * 10-3 So the concentration of HCl is Concentration = number of moles / volume 0.21302 = (2.503 * 10-3 * 2) / 23.5 * 10 -3 (Number of moles has to times by 2 due to the stoichiometry equation) The concentration of HCl is 0.21302 mol / L FIND THE CONCENTRATION OF UNDILUTED AMMONIA NH3 + HCl --> NH4Cl Number of moles HCl = volume times by concentration (from above) 1.16511 * 10-3 = 5.47 * 10-3 * 0.213 The number of moles HCl reacted = 1.16511 * 10-3 From the stoichiometry equation above N (HCl) = N (NH3) So the number of moles NH3 = 1.16511 * 10-3 So the number of moles NH3 in full 250 mL solution = = 1.16511 * 10-3 times ...read more.

Conclusion

7. When using the burette some bubbles might be in it. - May cause inaccurate result, measurement, volume - Can be avoided by use the burette carefully and slowly and also check before pour into the container. 8. The eye level when measuring the liquid solutions - May cause inaccurate result, measurement, volume - Can be avoided by carefully measure them with the eye level (mentioned above in the background) 9. During the titration there might be some liquid drops left in the beak of burette - May cause inaccurate result, end point, volume - Can be avoided by always wash the beak by the distill water to get the right amount of acid needed to neutralize. 10. Round-up calculations - May cause inaccurate result, data, calculation - Can be avoided by using the exact number throughout the calculation 11. Some tap water was used - May cause inaccurate solution because tap water in not purely H2O and contain some other particle or elements - Can be avoided by using the distill water. 12. The concentration of the concentrations may change during the experiment because some error made throughout the experiment. - May cause inaccurate result, concentration, calculation - Can be avoided by carefully work through each step. 13. Parallax errors may occur when measure the volume of the solution because the wrong eyes level - May cause inaccurate result, measurement - Can be avoided by carefully measure them and also use meniscus reading. ...read more.

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