• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Titration Theory - Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can use to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a standard concentration of another solution that chemically reacts with the unknown.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Titration Theory Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can use to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a standard concentration of another solution that chemically reacts with the unknown. This standard solution is referred to as the "titrant". We have to have some way to determine when the reaction is complete so you add indicator to the unknown so you can see when the reaction is complete. This is referred to as the "end point" or more technically the equivalence point. At that point all the unknown has been reacted with the standard titrant and some kind of chemical indicator must let us know when that point has been arrived at. To find the morality of the unknown you use this formula; Which can be rearranged to find the concentration of the unknown; Generally we know the morality of the titrant since it is a standard solution. ...read more.

Middle

The only unknown in the above equation is the Normality of the unknown. Making the standard solution of sodium hydroxide Theory A standard solution is one whose concentration is known precisely. These are important because they can be used to find the concentration of other solutions by titration. It is very important to be able to make a reliable standard because if the standard is wrong no matter how carefully you carry out your titration your results will be wrong. Method 1. work out how much sodium hydroxide is needed. 2. In practice it is time consuming and often impossible and unnecessary to weigh out exactly the right amount of solid . Any think give of take 10% of the weight will do. ...read more.

Conclusion

stopper and mix again. The standard is now ready. 8. work out the actual concentration using the formula: Results Final concentration of standard = 0.092 moldm-3 Using my standard sodium hydroxide solution for titration Diagram Method 1. rinse the burette first with water and then with a little of the solution to be used. And then fill it with taw standard. 2. put 25cm3 of the unknown into a conical flask with a pipette and add 3-5 drops of indicator. 3. record the start reading 4. titrate until the indicator changes colour permanently 5. record the end reading. 6. rinse out the conical flask. Pipette in some more unknown and repeat as many times as needed until two results are within 0.1cm3 of each other. Results Rough 1 2 3 Final reading 37.1 37.1 35.9 36.6 Initial reading 2.8 1.7 0.3 1.1 Titre / cm3 34.3 35.4 35.6 35.5 Conclusion ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Planning of Titration

    (This Titration will give you an idea of how to do the real experiment and any mistakes can be improved) * First rinse the Burette with distilled water to remove any dirt or other chemicals stuck in the burette. * Now rinse the burette with the acid to remove all the water in the burette.

  2. Identification of an Organic Unknown.

    Outcome: if the bromine water decolourises then this suggests that it is an alkene but if there is no colour change then it is either an alcohol or ester. I will also add bromine water to a test tube of water and use it as a control to show colour difference.

  1. Collision Theory

    This will form more products. Aim: The aim of this investigation is to examine the rate of reaction for different concentrations of hydrochloric acid added to sodium thiosulphate. The reaction takes place when these two substances come into contact and turns the solution cloudy.

  2. identifying an unknown compound

    Add 10 drops of H2SO4 and the warm gently. Pour mixture into 400ml beaker containing 200ml water. A Sweet smell is given off Alcohols present, could be primary or Tertiary. The Alchohol was oxidised to and ester. 3 Test for Primary Alchohols using Jones's reagent (CrO3-H2SO4 in H2O)

  1. Find out which antacid tablet works most efficiently using a technique called titration.

    mass/RFM = 0.06/84 = 0.0007142857143 moles Equation for CaCo3 = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O Moles of HCl that should be neutralized = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.002 = 0.004 moles Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)

  2. Titration with a primary standard.

    Clamping the buret into the buret clamp. Notice that the buret goes in crooked at first, but is then corrected so that it is vertical. Before filling and using the burets, you should thoroughly clean the burets so that liquid will not cling to the sides as the burets are

  1. Identification of an organic unknown.

    The former is more reactive than the latter chiefly due to the "presence of two alkyl groups in ketones hinders the approach of attacking reagents to the carbonyl group. Another factor is that alkyl groups are electron-donating and reduce the partial positive charge on the carbonyl atom."

  2. Precipitation of Salts & Identification of Unknown Solutions

    Since the majority of the precipitates produced are very similar in regards to appearances, I eliminated the cations which contradicted those for unknown A. For e.g., Cu2+, Ag+ and Fe3+, produced precipitates of different colours other than white when reacted with another salt.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work