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Titration Theory - Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can use to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a standard concentration of another solution that chemically reacts with the unknown.

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Introduction

Titration Theory Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can use to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a standard concentration of another solution that chemically reacts with the unknown. This standard solution is referred to as the "titrant". We have to have some way to determine when the reaction is complete so you add indicator to the unknown so you can see when the reaction is complete. This is referred to as the "end point" or more technically the equivalence point. At that point all the unknown has been reacted with the standard titrant and some kind of chemical indicator must let us know when that point has been arrived at. To find the morality of the unknown you use this formula; Which can be rearranged to find the concentration of the unknown; Generally we know the morality of the titrant since it is a standard solution.

Middle

The only unknown in the above equation is the Normality of the unknown. Making the standard solution of sodium hydroxide Theory A standard solution is one whose concentration is known precisely. These are important because they can be used to find the concentration of other solutions by titration. It is very important to be able to make a reliable standard because if the standard is wrong no matter how carefully you carry out your titration your results will be wrong. Method 1. work out how much sodium hydroxide is needed. 2. In practice it is time consuming and often impossible and unnecessary to weigh out exactly the right amount of solid . Any think give of take 10% of the weight will do.

Conclusion

stopper and mix again. The standard is now ready. 8. work out the actual concentration using the formula: Results Final concentration of standard = 0.092 moldm-3 Using my standard sodium hydroxide solution for titration Diagram Method 1. rinse the burette first with water and then with a little of the solution to be used. And then fill it with taw standard. 2. put 25cm3 of the unknown into a conical flask with a pipette and add 3-5 drops of indicator. 3. record the start reading 4. titrate until the indicator changes colour permanently 5. record the end reading. 6. rinse out the conical flask. Pipette in some more unknown and repeat as many times as needed until two results are within 0.1cm3 of each other. Results Rough 1 2 3 Final reading 37.1 37.1 35.9 36.6 Initial reading 2.8 1.7 0.3 1.1 Titre / cm3 34.3 35.4 35.6 35.5 Conclusion

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