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# Titration with a primary standard.

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Introduction

Middle

Conclusion

Solution Steps: 1. Write a balanced equation: 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2. Determine the number of moles of the standard NaOH solution used: 3. Use the mole ratio from the balanced equation to convert moles of NaOH to moles of H2SO4: 4. .Use the volume of acid solution used to determine the molarity of the acid solution: 5. Notice that the 1dm3/1000cm3 and the 1000cm3/1dm3 will offset each other. One may shorten the problem by skipping these conversions EXPERIMENTAL ERROR: In order to calculate your experimental error for each of your reactions, use the equation below. The theoretical value is the heat of reaction, for your acid, per mole of water formed, shown in Table 1. The experimental value is the actual heat of reaction you determined in each of your experiments (per mole of water formed). To obtain %Error for a measurement, you need to know the Theoretical and Experimental values for your measurement, or set of calculations. Use this formula to obtain the %Error, which is always a positve (absolute) value. FURTHER STUDY: 1. Repeat procedure with the concentrations of H2SO4 and NaOH reduced 10 and 100 times. Study the effect of concentration on the pH change. 2. Plot the first derivative (dpH/dt) against time of all the previous experiments and locate the end point in each case. The end point in the first derivative curves are defined as the point at the maximum value. The first derivative curves can be obtained by graphing programs such as MicroCal Origin. SOURCES CONSULTED: * Rendle, Vokins and Davis, 1991. Experimental Chemistry, Second Edition. London: Arnold. * Ottewill and Walsh, March 1996. 'Electrochemical Cell' and 'How to use electrochemical cells' . Chemistry Review Vol:4 Num:4. * Atkins, 1990. Physical Chemistry, Fourth Edition. Oxford: OUP. * Fine and Beall. Chemistry for Engineers and Scientist.. USA: Saunders College Publishing. * Salter Advance Chemistry Course 1994. 'Redox', 'Redox reactions and electrode potentials' in 'Chemical Ideas'. Oxford : Heinemann Educational Jeffery, Bassett, Mendham, Denney: Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th e ...read more.

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