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To determine the concentration of a limewater solution

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Introduction

To determine the concentration of a limewater solution Aim: I am going to determine the concentration of lime water through titration. In this investigation I will use 2.00 mol dm?� hydrochloric acid and 1gdm?� of calcium hydroxide. But as the acid has a higher concentration I shall need to dilute it. I will also work out the number of moles in calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] so that can identify the amount needed of hydrochloric acid. I will first need to dilute the hydrochloric acid and then next thing is to decide on the indicator which I will be using in this experiment. The indicator will be used to make the solution become neutral when the base has been reacted fully. The indicator which I will be using is phenolphthalein. The first thing to do is calculate the moles of calcium hydroxide. This has been done below: Hydrochloric acid = 2.00 mol dm?� Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] = 1gdm?� Therefore the moles equals mass divide by the relative molecular mass. ...read more.

Middle

M2 = 0.02 V2 = 250cm� 2 � V1 =0.02 � 250 Therefore: V1 = 0.02 � 250 2 = 2.5cm� Apparatus: * Volumetric flask(250cm�) * Pipette(5cm�) * Pipette filler * 100cm� beaker * Limewater(1gdm?� Solution) * Distilled water * 2M hydrochloric acid * Burette * 25cm� pipette * Indicator * 250cm� conical flask * White tile * Butterfly clamp * Stand * Wash bottle * White tile * Indicator(phenolphthalein) Risk Assessment: Chemical/Equipment Hazard Precaution Action in case of accident Glassware Can cause injury when broken Handle with care Report to teacher in case of injury Calcium hydroxide(limewater) Irritant Wear a lab coat and for eye protection wear goggles and gloves, also keep away from skin contact Wash thoroughly with tap water Hydrochloric acid Irritant Wear a lab coat and for eye protection wear goggles and gloves, also keep away from skin contact Wash thoroughly with tap water Method: I have to find the concentration of limewater by titration. ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Fill the 25cm� pipette with limewater or calcium hydroxide and then put it into the conical flask using a pipette and pipette pump. 3. Fill the burette with the diluted hydrochloric acid. 4. Use the stand and clamp to position the burette accurately. 5. Place the conical flask underneath the burette stand. 6. The solution of calcium hydroxide will need to have 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein. 7. This will make it turn from red to colourless. Then we will need to release the burette and let the product in there mix with the limewater or calcium hydroxide. 8. Consequently the outcome will be is the solution will turn orange/brown colour and when this occurs I will need to take the reading on the burette. 9. Empty out the equipment and wash them thoroughly and repeat the titration method 3 times to get accurate readings. Actions to ensure accuracy: 1. Repeat experiment at least 3 times to ensure results are very accurate 2. Rinse pipettes and burette with appropriate solutions 3. ...read more.

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Response to the question

The candidate sets out this experiment very well and neatly. The focus of the method and experiment is done very well. The only problem being the fact that the candidate does not include results which would have been good ...

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Response to the question

The candidate sets out this experiment very well and neatly. The focus of the method and experiment is done very well. The only problem being the fact that the candidate does not include results which would have been good to see an ending evaluation and conclusion to bring the experiment together.

Level of analysis

The aim outlines and works out how to dilute the HCl very clearly and sets out the calculations well. The chemical and the hazards are also lined out very neatly in a table. The method of titration is explained very well and is split into sections and steps. The diagram used is also very helpful to be able to know exactly how to set up the experiment in order to repeat it. It is also useful for the candidate to be able to analyse if there is any sections which could have been improved via their method and human error.

Quality of writing

The beginning section should be split into clearer sub sections as for the moment it appears a large block of text that is a bit harder to digest. The bibliograhy section is neatly set out and to improve they could have used a harvard referencing system. Punctuation, grammar and spelling all to a good level. Missing off the results section.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 24/08/2012

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