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# To determine the concentration of Limewater solution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To determine the concentration of Limewater solution Introduction:) I have been provided with 100cm3 of Lime water or Ca(OH). It has been made so that it contains around 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is also available with a concentration of exactly 2.00 mol dm-3. The problem is that this is too concentrated, so the reaction or end point will be reached too quickly and will give me a poor result. This means that the HCl needs to be diluted which is what is going to be calculated later on. This investigation will plan an experiment which will enable me to determine the concentration of Limewater in g dm-3 with as much accuracy as possible. I have been allowed to use the available apparatus however other chemicals cannot be used. Information from "Assessed Practical 2" (AS sheet). The equation for this reaction is Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl(aq) + 2H2O(L). As you can see the Ca(OH) reacts with the HCl producing Calcium Chloride and 2H2O. However even though these are the products, they can be the reactants to as well since Ca(OH)2 is made up by water (H2O) and calcium chloride (CaCl). Also Ca(OH) is not very soluble. When is dissolves with HCl for example, only a little of the Ca(OH) ...read more.

Middle

However if you are using a volumetric flask you will need to fill the flask with 2.5cm3 of HCl and then fill the rest of the flask up to 250cm3. (Practical process) Firstly I will go over the apparatus needed to perform the experiment then experiment procedure step by step. 1. Pipette X2 (10ml) 2. Burette (50cm3) 3. Stand and Clamp 4. Volumetric Flask (250ml) (THIS METHOD REFFERS TO THIS) 5. Measuring Cylinder (25cm3) 6. White Tile 7. Beaker of diluted HCl (How much you need may vary / 0.02 mol dm-3) 8. Beaker of Calcium Hydroxide 9. Pipette filler 10. Distilled water (amounts may vary) 11. Normal Hydrochloric acid (2.00 mol dm-3) 12. Screened Methyl Orange (10 drops for each experiment) 13. Conical flask (250cm3) 14. Normal Beakers (X2) 15. Funnel * Measure out 2.5 cm3 of HCl (the 2.00 mol dm-3 acid) and pour it into the volumetric flask with pipette. For accuracy ensure none of the HCl touches the sides or some HCl will not be in which changes the concentration! Then simply add distilled water until the 250ml mark to dilute the acid to. * Then get your pipette and rinse it with the Ca(OH) because it will make the results more accurate because previous liquids will be washed out. ...read more.

Conclusion

One of these errors includes the measuring apparatus. The pipette and burette supplied are very accurate however I noticed that they were both dirty on the inside and so would cause an error in my results. I state this error because dirt would influence the solutions. This dirt may have changed the concentration or it may have changed the amount of solution I thought was in there. This would happen because the dirt would take up space in the apparatus changing the amount of solution. A way to solve this is to simply wash the apparatus after use and to rinse the apparatus with the correct solution before usage. Another limitation is human error. For example a source of error is in measuring the amounts of the substances or materials used. I should have made sure that I correctly measured out the solutions using the pipette or burette using the meniscus level. This means that I should have been looking at the measuring apparatus straight inline and not from an angle. A way to improve this problem is to simply ensure that you are very careful in measuring the results Another limitation is in the accuracy of the experiment as a whole. There are a number of useful ways in which to make the experiment more accurate. First of all you can make sure that the measuring apparatus you use is at a high accuracy. 5 3 4 2.5 3 2 2 1. ...read more.

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