• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To distinguish between the 5 aqueous solutions there are a number of tests and experiments that can be carried out. The tests are best explained as a method and a detailed analysis of the reactions is added further on

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PLAN Part (i) - Analysis To distinguish between the 5 aqueous solutions there are a number of tests and experiments that can be carried out. The tests are best explained as a method and a detailed analysis of the reactions is added further on. Equipment Aqueous Potassium Bromide Aqueous Sodium Chloride Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide Ethanoic Acid Nitric Acid Silver Nitrate Ammonia Cooper (coin) Iron (III) Chloride Boiling tubes Pipette Safety Nitric Acid - Highly Corrosive, toxic, oxidizing agent Silver Nitrate - Poisonous, Corrosive to skin (Wear protective gloves and/or protective clothing) Method 1) First pipette approximately 10cm3 of each solution into separate boiling tubes and bubble carbon dioxide into each of the solutions. The one goes milky (white precipitate) from colourless is the Calcium hydroxide so this can be eliminated. ...read more.

Middle

Add iron (III) chloride solution should produce a red colour. Now label the boiling tube. Ethanoic acid had been eliminated. Results Test Result Further test Ca(OH)2 + CO2 --> CaCO3 + H2O White Precipitate ----- AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3 White Precipitate Add excess ammonia - Dissolves (more easily) AgNO3 + KBr --> AgBr + KNO3 Cream Precipitate Add excess ammonia - Dissolves less easily Cu + 4HNO3 --> Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O Brown Gas or Blue solution ----- CH3COOH + FeCl3 --> Red colour ----- Bibliography http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/demos/copper_HNO3/Cu_HNO3.htm http://www.revision-notes.co.uk/revision/262.html Part (ii) - Titration Equipment Burette Clamp Stand Clamp Burette clamp Conical Flask Nitric Acid (Unknown concentration) Aqueous Sodium Carbonate (0.500 mol dm-3) Phenolphthalein (a few drops) Method 1) Set up the apparatus as shown so that the volumetric flask is sitting on the white tile and the burrette is pointing into the volumetric flask. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the solution is nearly about to change, start adding the nitric acid drop by drop by closing the tap a until only a small amount gets through. 5) Once the solution has turned pink, take a note of the amount of nitric acid used (accurate to 0.1cm3. N.B. Performing the titration more than once is always advised, so the experiment should be repeated at least twice and readings should be within 0.5cm3. Calculations E.g. If 12.2cm3 of nitric acid was used and 25cm3 of sodium carbonate was used then this is how the concentration of the nitric acid would be calculated. Na2CO3 + 2HNO3 --> 2NaNO3 + CO2 + H20 Moles Na2CO3 = (Volume x Concentration) / 1000 = (25 x 0.500) / 1000 = 0.0125 moles 0.0125 moles Na2CO3 --> 0.0250 moles HNO3 Moles HNO3 = (Volume x Concentration) / 1000 Concentration = (Moles / Volume) x 1000 = (0.0250 / 12.2) x 1000 = 2.049 = 2.05M (3sf) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Acidic Solutions.

    I will rinse the beaker three times to make sure all the solution goes into the volumetric flask, each time pouring the solution down the stirring rod to rinse it. 7. I will carefully make up the solution to about 1cm of the mark on the neck of the flask using distilled water.

  2. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    Ammonium Sulphate (aq)] = 0.1 mol dm-3 [Potassium Manganate (VII)(aq)] = 0.01 mol dm-3 Start (cm3)

  1. Ammonia - The Structure of Ammonia.

    these reactions are: [Fe(H2O)6]2+ � [Fe(H2O)4(OH)2] green solution green precipitate (turns brown in air) [Co(H2O)6]2+ � [Co(H2O)4(OH)2] pink solution blue-green ppt (turns pink on standing then turns brown in air) [Fe(H2O)6]3+ � [Fe(H2O)3(OH)3] pale violet solution brown precipitate [Cr(H2O)6]3+ � [Cr(H2O)3(OH)3] red-violet solution green precipitate [Al(H2O)6]3+ � [Al(H2O)3(OH)3] colourless solution white precipitate Further (substitution)

  2. Obtain pure samples of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) from fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces ...

    By this figure it's mass will be worked out using the following equation: Mass = Density x Volume (mass A) Using the reflux apparatus (see diagram in method- practical 3) the ethanol with the Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium dichromate (VI)

  1. Determine the best method that will create the cheapest, but largest quantity of Epsom ...

    Casting metal components from either sand or die casting is the area of strongest demand growth for magnesium, particularly in the United States in the automotive market, as car producers attempt to meet current and future fuel economy standards. Below are other significant uses for magnesium: * in the desulphurisation of steel.

  2. Lesson Plan - Explained in detail.

    State time limit 10 minutes Circulate the class to help students who are struggling and to listen in on some explanations. Board Work and Teacher Explanation Bring the class back together to confirm definitions and difference. Three different types of Weathering - sub-heading in book There are three different types of weathering 1.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work