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# To explore how the efficiency of a kettle changes with the volume of water that is used to heat it.

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Introduction

Liam Derbyshire GCSE Investigation: Exploring The Efficiency Of A Kettle Aim: To explore how the efficiency of a kettle changes with the volume of water that is used to heat it. Prediction: Through a kettle heat is lost through mainly three areas. Firstly, through radiation, this is when heat is thrown out of the kettle via the kettle wall out of the main body of water. The second way is by conduction, this is where heat passes through the main body of water via the kettle wall. And, also by convection, where some of the water particles carrying energy are lost through water vapour through the spout of the kettle. In all these ways of heat loss, everything revolves around the surface area, where all the heat is lost. The bigger the surface area of the volume of water, the more heat energy will be lost. I have done some preliminary work, which proves that if the volume of the body of water doubles, the surface area is unproportional to the body of water even though you would expect it to double. ...read more.

Middle

When it reaches the next given temperature, press the reset button again and record the lap time and once again press the same button to continue on with timing the heating process, and carrying on repeating this process till I have recorded all the times in my results table. I will then repeat this experiment 4 more times but to keep the investigation fair, make sure that for every individual experiment........... * I wash the kettle out thoroughly with cold water to cool the element down, as it will still be warm from the previous experiment. * I change the water, from hot to cold, so the common starting point remains 20?C for every experiment. * Use the same common starting point (temperature), because the water's temperature from the tap can vary slightly. * I will use the same range of temperatures for each experiment. In this experiment I am not heating the water to 100?C because it doesn't always reach this temperature of boiling. ...read more.

Conclusion

20-35 42 92400 31500 34 20-50 64 140800 63000 45 20-65 77 169400 945000 56 20-80 82 180400 126000 70 20-95 90 195000 157500 80 For 750ml (0.75kg) of water. Temperature Change (?C) Time (seconds) Electricity supplied (J) Energy absorbed Efficiency (%) 20-35 26 57200 49250 82 20-50 49 107800 94500 88 20-65 74 162800 141750 87 20-80 98 215600 189000 88 20-95 125 275000 236250 86 For 1 litre (1kg) of water. Temperature Change (?C) Time (seconds) Electricity supplied (J) Energy absorbed Efficiency (%) 20-35 33 72600 63000 87 20-50 64 140800 126000 89 20-65 97 213400 189000 89 20-80 129 283800 252000 89 20-95 162 356400 315000 89 For 1.25 litres (1.25kg) of water. Temperature Change (?C) Time (seconds) Electricity supplied (J) Energy absorbed Efficiency (%) 20-35 38 83600 78750 94 20-50 77 169400 157500 93 20-65 117 257400 236250 92 20-80 180 352000 315000 89 20-95 199 437800 393750 90 For 1.5 litres (1.5kg) of water. Temperature Change (?C) Time (seconds) Electricity supplied (J) Energy absorbed Efficiency (%) 20-35 35 121000 94500 78 20-50 101 222200 189000 85 20-65 149 327800 283500 86 20-80 196 431200 378000 88 20-95 244 536800 472500 88 ...read more.

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