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# To find a pattern in the heat of combustion of number of fuels.

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Introduction

Heats of Combustion of Alcohol Mark Wong 11N Aim: To find a pattern in the heat of combustion of number of fuels. Apparatus: * Clamp Stand * Copper Can * Thermometer * 6 different alcohols - methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol and hexan-1-ol * Matches * Heat proof mat * Aluminum foil * Rubber band * 100ml of water - for each alcohol * Measuring cylinder * Measuring scale Diagram: Method: 1. Collect and set up equipment as shown in diagram 2. Collect the first alcohol on the list (methanol) 3. Measure water to 100ml and pour into copper can 4. Measure temperature of water and record on a table 5. Measure whole weight of the alcohol excluding the cap of the bottle of alcohol and record the weight 6. Light the alcohol with a match and stir the water inside repeatedly 7. Stop experiment after the temperature has increased by 300c 8. Reweigh the mass of the alcohol and record 9. Repeat the test 3 times for a fair and meaningful result 10.Repeat the experiment with all the other alcohols Variables/Fair Test: In order to obtain a fair test the following will be done 1. ...read more.

Middle

0C Weight of alcohol before (g) Weight of alcohol after (g) Difference in mass (g) Methanol 25 55 189.84 185.52 -4.32 Ethanol 25 55 242.5 239.08 -3.42 Propan-1-ol 27 57 240.49 238.28 -2.21 Brutan-1-ol 27 57 263.32 261.19 -2.13 Pentan-1-ol 27 57 211.07 209.01 -2.06 Hexan-1-ol 28 58 241.57 239.43 -2.14 Average from the 3 tests Alcohol Average mass change (g) Methanol 3.55 Ethanol 2.84 Propan-1-ol 2.15 Brutan-1-ol 2.20 Pentan-1-ol 2.00 Hexan-1-ol 1.59 Calculations: Mass of water being heated - 100cm3 = 100g Specific heat capacity of water - 4.18 J0c -1g1 Change in temperature of water - 300c The following formulas were used to calculate the Energy change in water and the No. Of joules one gram of fuel produces Amount of energy (J) given out by fuel = Q = mcT Where: Q= energy change in Joules M=mass of water being heated in grams C=specific heat capacity of water T=change in temperature in 0c Energy change in water = _J = 100 x 4.18 x _0C No. Of joules one gram of fuel produces = _J/_g = _J/g Table of Energy change in water and No. ...read more.

Conclusion

I have also followed the instructions of producing a fair test. The main problem of this experiment was he conditions we did the experiment in. There was a slight lack of time for the experiments to be done; the experiments could be repeated more in order to obtain an even more accurate result and better evidence would be shown if the experiment were to be repeated. The room temperature should be fixed; this is because the room temperature also affects the measurements on the thermometer therefore a fixed temperature (either air conditioning to be powered on or off). Also if I had more time, I would calculate the number of Joules that one mole of fuel would produce. In that way I can compare the experimental results (Joules/grams) with the theoretical results (Joules/moles). If I had more time I would do research on this experiment before I start planning and proceed to this experiment, this way I would have more background knowledge of the experiment and will not suffer as much without knowing the theory of this experiment. A hypothesis can then be done if research and further knowledge of this experiment existed before, which then means a prediction can be made and compared to theory. ...read more.

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