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To find how concentration affects the rate of reaction

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Introduction

Arran Patel 11k GCSE Practical Chemistry Coursework Rate Of Reaction Aim: To find how concentration affects the rate of reaction Background Information: A chemical reaction is caused when particles collide with one another with enough sufficient energy. All substances are made up of particles. The more collisions there are between the particles, the faster the rate of the reaction. Collisions occur when different particles have enough energy to collide into one another, however this can be speeded up with the aid of a catalyst. There are four common factors that can affect the rate of a reaction. The Temperature For every 10�C rise in temperature (0�C = 273K) there is a doubling of kinetic energy that the particles contain. This therefore increases the reaction rate as the particles are moving around and colliding more. The collisions become bigger, faster and more frequent, and so the reaction rate increases. The Concentration By increasing the number of particles present, you are increasing the chance of a collision, as there are more particles to collide with. Therefore increasing the chances of a faster reaction time. The Surface area If the reactants have a big surface area then they react quicker as more of them are exposed. The greater the surface area; the faster the rate of reaction. The presence of a Catalyst (which we will not be investigating) A catalyst is a substance, which speeds up a chemical reaction, however, at the end of a reaction, the catalyst remains chemically unchanged. ...read more.

Middle

This is because with a higher concentration of light the cross under the beaker maybe visible, as apposed to just normal light. Also the amount of acid stays the same. Aim: To find how concentration affects the rate of reaction with liquids. Thiosulphate reacts with acid to turn into a precipitate. From that last experiment I have decided to use expand on the concentrations used. And therefore will be using a maximum of 50cm� of any of the total solution formed. They will scale from: Volume of Thiosulphate (cm�) Volume Of Water (cm�) 50 0 40 10 30 20 20 30 10 40 Prediction: From our previous investigations I have found that higher concentrations affect the rate of reaction by increasing it. Therefore I predict that when 50cm� of Thiosulphate and 0cm� of water is used that the rate of reaction will be faster. This means that the cross under the beaker will no longer be visible faster then when using a low concentration. I also predict that when using a 10cm� of thiosulphate and 40cm� of water the reaction will take place slowest; this is shown up in the activation site, there are fewer particles to react with. Apparatus Sodium Thiosulfate Beaker 50cm� measuring cylinder Stopwatch Dilute Hydrochloric acid (DHA) Method 1. Measure 50cm� of sodium thiosulphate using an appropriate measuring cylinder (for example a measuring cylinder that reads up to 50cm� or 100cm� only). 2. Put into a beaker and put that on a piece of paper with a Black cross on it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore even if 1 result were faulty the others would make sure that it was completely wrong. My third point was Make sure that when watching the X on the paper that once it could not be scene the stop-watch was stopped. This was also carried out successfully because more then 1 person recorded the time, so therefore if it went wrong another person could make the sure the time was correct. The forth was to stop contamination. This one point may have not been carried out properly, this is because the same beakers were used throughout the experiments and therefore if they were not cleaned properly that would have ruined the experiment. The fifth was to make sure that all of the flasks and beakers used were the same. This was carried out successfully because the same beakers were used to carry out the experiments. From this I can conclude that the experiment was carried out properly, and the results obtained are valid. Improvements To Investigation: To further the investigation I would alter the amounts of acid used. From this I could find out which concentrations of the catalyst and reactants would give the fastest time. Also I would investigate to which point the Thiosulphate becomes an saturate within the acid content, at this point of the graph it should become a straight line. Another experiments to find out how temperature, concentration and surface area affect the rate of reaction. To find at which combination the reaction takes the least amount of time. The End Arran Patel 11K ...read more.

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