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To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when limestone is dissolved in nitric acid.

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Introduction

Planning Aim - To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when limestone is dissolved in nitric acid. Equation - Calcium + Nitric ? Calcium + Carbon + Water Carbonate Acid Nitrate Dioxide CaCO3 + 2HNO3 ? Ca (NO3) + CO2 + H2O In order to make this a fair investigation the following variables be kept constant: * Temperature: This variable changes the rate of reaction, when the temperature is increased the rate of reaction is quicker, because the particles have more energy to move around and collide with each other. The more collisions between particles in a given off, the faster the rate of reaction. * Concentration: There will be a concentration of acid and a concentration of water as well. This variable changes the rate of reaction, by adding more acid in concentration than the water then the reaction will take place quicker because there is more acid to react with the marble chips, and if you add more water then the reaction will take longer because there is less acid to react with the marble chips. * Surface Area: This variable changes the rate of reaction because if we increase the surface area, we increase the rate. Surface area is the measure of how much surface is exposed. So for the same mass of the marble chips, small chips have a larger surface area than bigger chips, this means that rate of the small chips will be quicker than the bigger ones. * Stirring: Stirring the mixture is an important rate factor. If the reacting mixture is not stirred 'evenly' then the reactant concentration in solution becomes much less near the solid, which tends to settle out. At the bottom of the boiling tube the reaction prematurely slows down distorting the overall rate measurement and making the results uneven and therefore inaccurate. ...read more.

Middle

* I will be always using the same measuring cylinder water measuring the acid and water. Concentration of Nitric acid - if the acid is diluted with water it would make it weaker and also slower to react with the limestone of Calcium Carbonate and because there are less particles of the reactant between the water molecules, which would have enabled it to make more collisions and therefore react quicker. Where as if the solution has a stronger concentration with less water or none at all it would react at a faster rate, this is because there will be more of the particles reacting and colliding at a more faster rate than a solution with a weaker concentration and a large surface area. Safety * A pair of goggles will be worn during the experiment, because the acids are very dangerous to the eyes and skin. * When using the acid I will handle with care, because it is a harmful product to your body * I will have to watch the boiling tube when I out the limestone in, because sometimes, the reaction is very fast, and suddenly the liquid falls out of the top. * The limestone can be very small, and I will have to take care while holding the limestone. * During the experience I will ensure that I have got the right clothing on and a safe working space, also I will always be standing up during the experience. Fair test To keep this experiment a fair test, all the variables need to be constant to prevent getting wrong results. The type of size of the limestone needs to be kept the same throughout the experiment; also I will use 5g of limestone in each concentration of acid. The acid cannot be using again after the reaction; otherwise there would be little reaction for the limestone. Before I start the next concentration, I will have to always clean the boiling tube out, because there will be bits of limestone and acid still at the bottom. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is very a long sequence of activities to do in a certain amount of time. There is a potential for error here. I think this is the reason for the anomalous results as I did not start the watch at the correct time as I had trouble putting the bung into the boiling tube. I had a problem of the gas having to push the water down the delivery tube before the gas was collected. This added time onto the true time taken. This means my results are higher than they should be, because I started the stopwatch when I put the limestone into the boiling tube. I think that my results are good as I was expecting far more anomalous results, but I only got the four. From this I think that my results are good enough, but there is always room for improvement and I think I could improve my results by decreasing the chances of human error which would mean I would have to be alert throughout the whole experiment so that I can try to stop these anomalous results, and if I can then I will be able to get the best results, I would do this by repeat any strange results. To extend my enquiry I think that I could use a different variable, such as temperature, or surface area etc. This would get more evidence as I could investigate if temperature or surface area made any difference to the rate of reaction. To provide more evidence for my investigation I could use a thermometer to measure the temperature during the experiment. For further investigation I could use stronger acid to see if there is limit to how quickly the reaction can take place. Also, I could measure the mass loss of the reaction by having the boiling tube on a top pan balance. I could take away the mass at regular intervals from the original and find out how quickly the reaction takes place. 7 Aneil Patel Corrosion of Limestone by Acid ...read more.

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