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To find out and analyse what factors affect the rate of reaction between limestone and acid rain.

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Introduction

Chemistry - Rate of Reaction Coursework Section 1: Planning Aim To find out and analyse what factors affect the rate of reaction between limestone and acid rain. Background Information Most materials that are exposed to outdoor conditions are likely to eventually erode due to a natural weathering process. Limestone and marble are two rocks that are often used in the construction of buildings, and this has been so since the 19th century. Both rock types contain a large amount of calcium carbonate. All carbonate materials are likely to erode due to rain. Pure water has a pH of 7, however rain is slightly acidic, with a pH of approximately 5.6. Rain water in some areas has known to be even more acidic, with a pH of 3 or less. The chemical equation for this reaction is: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide CaCo3 + H2SO4 --> CaOH2 + CO2` I know that these three main factors could affect the rate of reaction between limestone and acid rain: * Temperature * Surface Area * Concentration (of solution) ...read more.

Middle

and a good mass of medium sized marble chips to use was 1 gram. I also decided from my preliminary experiment that the best interval to record the volume of gas in my experiment is every 30 seconds. I found that the concentration of 2 moles reacted quickly and after 5 minutes the gas syringe was almost completely filled with gas. Due to this, I decided from my preliminary experiment that 2 moles would be the highest concentration of acid I would use, because anything higher would fill the gas syringe before the time period of 5 minutes. This means that in my main experiment, all my concentrations will be lower than 2 moles. I am going to use the same time period (of 5 minutes [300 seconds] total, every 30 seconds gas collecting), in my main experiment too. Prediction The collision theory states that all substances are made from particles, of which may be atoms, molecules or ions. Before there is a chemical reaction, these particles must crash together - they must collide. ...read more.

Conclusion

I will repeat this method for each of the six concentrations. Method When I am doing my experiment, I am going to use calcium carbonate to represent limestone and hydrochloric acid as acid rain. I am going to use the following concentrations (of acid) in my experiment: 2 moles, 1.8 moles, 1.6 moles, 1.4 moles, 1.2 moles and 1 mole. I am investigating six different concentrations so I will have to run my experiment six times for each concentration individually. To work out the amount of acid and water I needed for each concentration, I used this formula (for a total of 100ml): 1000 x Concentration (m) Volume of Acid = ----------------------------- 2x10 This table shows the results of my calculations and the amount of water and acid I will use for each concentration: Having changed the independent variable (concentration of acid), I will be measuring the amount of carbon dioxide gas given off (cm?) every 30 seconds. From this information, I will be able to plot graphs and find the rate of reaction. I can do this by dividing the amount of gas produced by the amount of time it was produced in. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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Response to the question

Overall a good starting essay, the only problem is that no results are provided and it just outlines how to do the experiment so we cannot get an overall picture of the students grasp of evaluating the experiment in ...

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Response to the question

Overall a good starting essay, the only problem is that no results are provided and it just outlines how to do the experiment so we cannot get an overall picture of the students grasp of evaluating the experiment in light of their results. A very good pre-liminary experiment is carried out by the candidate which allows errors to be accounted for and to predict how the experiment will go which should be done in all circumstances to make the results more reliable.

Level of analysis

The candidate begins with a good summary of what the aim of the investigation is and some background knowledge of the subject. They state what factors they could investigate which is good, but they also need to state how they will keep the other factors constant so that they do not affect the experiment negatively. The candidate made some good improvements from noting the effects with the preliminary experiment on the results and takes steps to prevent any errors that may occur which is good. The candidate makes a prediction based with scientific theory which is accurate. The candidate does not provide us with the results, and the method should really be laid out with a bullet pointed system to make it easier to read and a diagram so any other person could easily set up the experiment.

Quality of writing

The punctuation, grammar and spelling are all to a very high level. Format of the text is good with key points being highlighted in bold.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 05/08/2012

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