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To find out the 5 solutions by testing out the cations and anions.

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Introduction

Title: Identification of cations and anions Objective: To find out the 5 solutions by testing out the cations and anions. Introduction: Such as we have known, the charged particles are called ions. Positive ions are called cations because they travel towards the cathode, such as: aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper, iron (II), iron (III); Negative ions are called anions because they travel towards the anode, such as: carbonate, chloride, iodide, nitrate, sulphate... In this experiment, we are going to use the tests of anions and cations to test for the 5 solutions. The tests are showed below: Test for anions: Test Test result Carbonate (CO32-) Add dilute acid Effervescence, carbon dioxide produced Chloride (Cl-) (In solution) Acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate White precipitate. Iodide (I-) (In solution) Acidify with dilute nitric, then add aqueous lead(II) nitrate Yellow precipitate. Nitrate (NO3-) Add aqueous sodium hydroxide then aluminium foil; warm carefully Ammonia produced Sulphate (SO42-) (In solution) Acidify then add aqueous barium nitrate White precipitate. Test for aqueous cations Effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide Effect of aqueous ammonia Aluminium (Al3+) White precipitate. Soluble in excess giving a colorless solution White precipitate. Insoluble in excess Ammonium (NH4+) Ammonia produced on warming - Calcium (Ca2+) White precipitate. Insoluble in excess No precipitate. Or very slight white precipitate Copper (Cu2+) Light blue precipitate, insoluble in excess Light blue precipitate. ...read more.

Middle

White precipitate. Insoluble in excess Copper (Cu2+) Light blue precipitate, insoluble in excess Iron (II) (Fe2+) Green precipitate, insoluble in excess Iron (III) (Fe3+) Red-brown precipitate, insoluble in excess Results: SULUTION1: Anion tests Carbonate (CO32-) test V Chloride (Cl-) test (In solution) X Iodide (I-) test (In solution) X Nitrate (NO3-) test X Sulphate (SO42-) test (In solution) X Cations tests Aluminium (Al3+) test X Ammonium (NH4+) test X Calcium (Ca2+) test X Copper (Cu2+) test V Iron (II) (Fe2+) test X Iron (III) (Fe3+) test X SOLUTION2: Anion tests Carbonate (CO32-) test X Chloride (Cl-) test (In solution) V Iodide (I-) test (In solution) X Nitrate (NO3-) test X Sulphate (SO42-) test (In solution) X Cations tests Aluminium (Al3+) test X Ammonium (NH4+) test X Calcium (Ca2+) test V Copper (Cu2+) test X Iron (II) (Fe2+) test X Iron (III) (Fe3+) test X SOLUTION 3: Anion tests Carbonate (CO32-) test X Chloride (Cl-) test (In solution) X Iodide (I-) test (In solution) X Nitrate (NO3-) test X Sulphate (SO42-) test (In solution) V Cations tests Aluminium (Al3+) test X Ammonium (NH4+) test X Calcium (Ca2+) test X Copper (Cu2+) test X Iron (II) (Fe2+) test V Iron (III) (Fe3+) test X SOLUTION 4: Anion tests Carbonate (CO32-) test X Chloride (Cl-) test (In solution) X Iodide (I-) test (In solution) V Nitrate (NO3-) ...read more.

Conclusion

How can we test for the ammonia that has been formed? We can test it by heating up the solutions, and put piece of red litmus paper near the test tube, and observe the color change of the litmus paper. If the color don't change, that means the solution doesn't contain ammonia, if the color changes from red to blue that means the solution contains ammonia, ammonia is a base gas, so it changes red litmus paper blue. How come we used dilute acid but not acid? We used dilute hydrogen nitrate during this experiment, because when a strong acid is reacting, it will react with the substances very fast and strongly, so it is quite dangerous. We used the dilute acid, because the acid has been dissociated, it releases less hydrogen ion, so it reacts with substance much slowly, so it won't be that dangerous. Conclusion: This experiment shows that we can find out the solutions by testing the anions and cations. After we found out the cations and anions, we can know what the solution is by add the two ions together. Such as: we find out the cations of solution2 is Calcium and the anions of solution2 is Chloride, so we can know that solution2 should be Calcium Chloride (Ca2Cl). We can know that by Cations + Anions. From this experiment, we knew that, we can use lots of different kinds of tests to test the cations and anions. And we can find out what the solutions or substances are after we find out their cations and anions. Evaluation: ...read more.

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