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To find out what changes in period occur if we drop the pendulum from different angles and how Period (time it takes the pendulum to travel from one side to the other and back, 1period = 2 swings) and Angle are related to each other.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Philipp C. Protschka        Page  of         30 April 2007

Physics Practical

Pendulum Experiments:

Experiment 1

Changing the Angle

Planning A:

Aim:

To find out what changes in period occur if we drop the pendulum from different angles and how Period (time it takes the pendulum to travel from one side to the other and back, 1period = 2 swings) and Angle are related to each other.

Hypothesis:

As greater the angle is as faster the weight will travel. But not only the speed increases also the distance the pendulum has to travel increases. So there is a direct relationship between speed and distance. The prediction is that the amount of time it takes the pendulum for a period will increase as we increase the angle. This is because the distance the pendulum has to travel increases. Friction and air resistance results in a longer period.

Planning B:

The Equipment needed:
a piece of steel wire at least 1 meter long, stand to attach the pendulum, Boss, Angle measurer, Clamp, a watch that counts seconds, pencil and paper/laptop to record the results, a weight to attach on the string (as heavier as better because air resistance has less effect)

...read more.

Middle

Planning B:

The Equipment needed:

  • a ruler about 150cm
  • stand to attach the ruler
  • Boss, Angle measurer
  • Clamp
  • 2 stop clocks
  • pencil and paper/laptop to record the results,
  • ball bearing

In this Experiment the Controlled variables will be the length of the ruler, the gravity, etc…

The independent variable in the experiment will be the angle of which the pendulum (ruler) drops.

Method:

Change the angle on the pendulum (ruler). Then you'll measure the period, the dependent variable. We will drop it from 18 different angles. From 179.99° , 170°, 160°, 150°, 140°, 130°, 120°, 110°, 100°, 90°,80°; 70°, 60° 50°, 40°, 30°, 10°

Angle 1:

  1. Set up Equipment like this:

image10.png

  1. Pull up the ruler to an angle of 10° (measured from the vertical position of the pendulum at rest)  and allow it to swing for ten full periods (over and back, 20 times).
  2. 2 people time how long it takes to do this.
  3. The two results where recorded and averaged.
  4. Step 2-3 where repeated 2 more times in order to give more accurate results. The results from the 1-3 trial where averaged and recorded in a data-collection table
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Conclusion

Overall Conclusion:

When you change the angle of the pendulum, the period of the pendulum does change. As Bigger the angle as more time it takes the pendulum to travel from one end to another. This is due to more friction and more air resistance as we increase the angle.

Evaluation:

To get better results the following things should be done:

  • Ruler should be made out of steel
  • Ruler should be longer
  • Instead of taking the time with eyes and hand the time should be taken by a light gate.
  • Experiment should be done more often to improve results.
  • Experiment should be done in a Vacuum to cancel out air resistance. (If not possible increase density of pendulum/ruler.)
  • Ball bearing should be top quality steel to reduce friction
  • Ruler should be attached to ball bearing as tight and close as possible to reduce friction.

Last printed 4/30/2007 8:34 PM

...read more.

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