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To find out what factors affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid, then investigate one of them in an experiment.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATION IN THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF A REACTION Aim=To find out what factors affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid, then investigate one of them in an experiment. Background Knowledge=A rate of reaction is how fast a reaction is between more than two reactants. They react with their particles, when they collide together they often do so with such a speed and force that they reach an 'activation energy', the energy needed for the materials to react. We know from past work and experiments, and also from official theories, that there are four main factors that affect the rate of reaction; these are categorised in the Collision Theory. ( this work was taken from CGP chemistry GCSE revision guide and Chemistry Counts textbook)) 1) Size of particles=When two materials are reacting together they can only do so with the area on the surface of the particle, obviously called 'surface area'. The larger that surface area is, the larger the area that they particles can react with, increasing their rate of reaction. This is explained in the diagram below 2) Catalysts= A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a reaction without being used up itself, eg, an enzyme is a biological catalyst. It does this by providing a surface that the particles stick to, so increasing the possibility that they will collide. ...read more.

Middle

Risk Assessment= Because of the acid being used safety precautions will need to be taken. Overalls and goggles will be warn, and extra care will be taken over spillages. Goggles will also be worn in case of any possible gases escaping and causing harm. Accuracy= I will try to be as accurate as possible when collecting my results, so I can be sure that my results are precise enough for me to form a strong conclusion. I will measure my liquids with the burette because it is more accurate and always rinse and dry out the conical flask between experiments, as any left over could influence the results. Variables= In my experiment I am only going to vary one thing; the concentration of the acid. I am going to do this by diluting the acid with water. I could not change more than one variable because then I would not be able to form a conclusion, as I would be unsure as to which factor made the difference. Fair test= To keep it a fair test, so to keep the results reliable I will vary and keep the same a number of things. The only thing I will vary is the concentration of the acid. I will keep the same burette, gas syringe, stop clock, ruler, type of HCL and type of Mg. ...read more.

Conclusion

The evidence I obtained is good enough to be used to simply prove/disprove my prediction. However, my individual results (i.e the specific ones for 1.0M/1.2M etc) would not be strong enough to prove/disprove anything as I do not think they are reliable enough. Repetition= if I was to repeat this experiment I don't think I would change anything about the procedure. For what I was trying to find out it was very appropriate and covered everything I needed to know. To improve my reliability I would measure the temperature all the way through and see how it affects my results. Future work=if I was to do any future work it would be to investigate another factor that affects the rate of a reaction. If I was to do temperature I would use the same concentration of acid all the way through and the same length of Mg ribbon but I would heat the HCl first and then time how long it took for the magnesium to dissolve. I would expect the results to be that there would be a higher rate of reaction (eg a faster time that the magnesium dissolved) the higher the temperature. This is because the heat energy gets transferred to kinetic energy in the particles, which makes them move about faster- so they are more likely to collide and reach their activation energy than at a lower temperature, when they are moving more slowly. 1 Jenny Wass, 11S ...read more.

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