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To find out which of these four alcohols: ethanol butanol propanol pentanol is the best fuel to use and also which, uses the least amount of fuel to boil a certain amount of water.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK GCSE Different Fuels Investigation: To investigate different alcohols. Aim: To find out which of these four alcohols: 1-ethanol 1-butanol 1-propanol 1-pentanol is the best fuel to use and also which, uses the least amount of fuel to boil a certain amount of water. Background: I looked through books and encyclopaedias to find out more about these alcohols, so that I can base my prediction on this. I found out that: 1) Propanol: - is an isomeric alcohol which means it is an isomer which means that propanol can be made up of 2 or more compounds but having the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Propanol is also a by-product of the synthesis of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Its molecular formula is CH3 CH2 CH2OH or in simple terms C3H7OH. Propanol is a colourless, flammable, fragrant liquid and it is also fairly toxic. 2) Pentanol: - is an organic compound, its molecular formula is CH5H11OH. The term is commonly applied to mixtures and compounds, which are used as solvents for resins and oily materials. It is a colourless liquid, slightly soluble in water and it has a penetrating odour. 3) Butanol: - is an organic compound, its molecular structure is very similar to the other alcohols, its molecular structure is C4H9OH. ...read more.

Middle

5) Light the wick of the spirit burner with a lighter or splint, and start the stopwatch at the same time. 6) Wait until the water temperature has reached 100�C stop the watch and cover the spirit burner wiv the glass lid so the flame goes out, and record the time. 7) Wait about 5 minutes for the spirit burner to cool because glass expands when it has been heated. Then weigh it and record the result. 8) Repeat this method for each alcohol and then repeat the whole experiment at least once more to make the results slightly more accurate. Results Safety For this experiment there are not many safety rules but you must wear goggles through out the experiment to protect the eyes. Also to keep the spirit burners on the heatproof mat at all times, and last of all not too heat the water so high that the thermometer breaks. Maintaining accuracy I will do this by: 1) Keeping the temperature of the water at the start of the experiment 20�C. 2) Keeping the amount of water 100ml. 3) Always heating the water to 100�C. 4) Using the same size conical flak. 5) Using the same apparatus. Result 1 Alcohol Grams before (g) Time taken (min) ...read more.

Conclusion

4) A different person may have read the readings on the thermometer so there fore the eye level was different and you would get a different reading. So in order to make this experiment more reliable I could be more aware of the factors that affect my end result and try to keep the experiment as accurate as possible. I can do this by : 1) Making sure the same person reads the reading of the thermometer. 2) Making sure the temperature of the water is the same at the start. 3) Reading the weight accurately. Also I could improve the reliability by repeating the experiment if I find anymore anomalous results. The evidence that I had gained in my prediction and my analysis can help to be sure that the result obtained was an anomalous result because it is supposed to be a straight-line graph, because that's how each alcohol reacts. Pentanol, being the most reactive, and, ethanol being the least reactive. Using different containers to put the water in can extend this experiment. You could use a tin can, boiling tubes, beaker of different sizes and many other containers that can be heated. My experiment could be changed to see how much fuel is used to heat up water in different containers. So therefore I could compare two containers with each other. Overall I think my experiment was done well and I achieved fairly accurate results. Saira Hamid 11cm ...read more.

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