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To find out which type of insulating is the most efficient at keeping in heat.

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Introduction

Name: Laura Thompson Teacher: Mr. Taylor To Understand Why Some Insulators Are More Effective Than Others Aim: To find out which type of insulating is the most efficient at keeping in heat. Background Information Definitions from the 'Dictionary Of Science' Convection- heat energy transfer that involves the movement of a fluid (gas or liquid). According to the kinetic theory, molecules of fluid in contact with the source of heat expand and tend to rise within the bulk of the fluid. Less energetic, cooler molecules sink to take their place, setting up convection currents. This is the principle of natural convection in many domestic hot-water systems and space heaters. This basically means that convection is the rising of hot molecules and the sinking of the cooler molecules. This means to get accurate results I will have to stir the water before I take the temperature so I get both the hot and cold molecules. Conduction (heat)-flow of heat through a material without the movement of any part of the material itself. Heat energy is present in all materials in the form of kinetic energy of their vibrating molecules, and may be conducted from one molecule to the next in the form of this mechanical vibration. In the case of metals, which are particularly good conductors of heat, the free electrons within the material carry around very quickly. This basically means that the heat energy is passed on from one molecule to another. This happens when the molecules begin to vibrate causing the other molecules around them to vibrate it works best in solids as all the molecules are very close together, it takes a bit longer for liquids to heat up as the molecules are spread further apart, but it takes even longer to heat up gases as the molecules are disbursed evenly through out the air, this makes it hard for the vibrating molecules to hit each other and spread their energy. ...read more.

Middle

18 20 J-cloth 50 48 47 46 44 43 42 42 41 41 41 Rock wool 50 48 48 46 45 45 45 44 44 42 41 Silver foil 50 48 48 46 44 42 42 41 40 39 38 Black paper 50 46 45 44 43 41 40 39 38 37 36 Bubble wrap 50 48 46 45 44 44 44 43 42 41 40 Control 50 47 46 44 42 42 41 40 39 38 37 My preliminary results show that the rock wool and the j-cloth were the best insulators because after 20 minutes the water in their beakers was 41 C , higher than all of the other beaker's water that were wrapped in other insulating material. For my main experiment I will keep the range of materials I used the same. I will increase the length of time my experiment runs for by 10 minutes as I believe this will give me a better range of times and increase the accuracy, as the longer the period of time the beakers are left to cool for the easier it is to see how effective each insulator is. I will still only cover the side of the beaker as I believe this is where most of the heat is lost from. I will repeat the experiment 3 times as I believe this number of results will give me an accurate average. I will not include any results that I believe to be wrong in my average. Method For Main Experiment The method for my main experiment will be the same as the method for my preliminary experiment except I am going to keep increase the amount of time by 10 minutes as I believe this will be the best amount of time to get an accurate reading. I will do my main experiment results to one decimal place as I believe that this will give me the most precise results .When reading the temperature of the water from the thermometer I will take any number that is whole e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

I have highlighted the results that I believe are wrong on my results table and have not included them in my averages. On my graph my points go up in curves or in some sort of curve. I have joined all of the points on my graph together but on some of my curves I have done a curve of best fit, I have done this because it will show me if any results are slightly wrong. The trend I see from the graph is that the more trapped air particles or the denser the material the steeper the slope of the graph is. I believe that the way in which I carried out my experiment was good as I followed my method exactly. To improve the accuracy of my method I could have said I would use a ruler to get a more accurate measure of each substance, I could make sure that the materials all had the same surface area because the bigger surface area the more heat molecules it could have trapped. I could have also make sure that the room was the same temperature for each experiment because if the room was hot for one experiment and cold for another then the results would be inaccurate as the molecules would be hotter or colder and this could effect the fall in temperatures. The results I have support my conclusion and my prediction, as what I predicted would happen did happen. The order of the concentrations for the most gas released in 5 minutes was also accurate, as it was in the order that I predicted. To extend my investigation I could test if the temperature had any effect on the amount of gas released, I believe this would provide me with the relevant information about what the optimum temperature is for a reaction to take place. I could then test the optimum concentration and the optimum temperature together and see how much gas is released in 5 minutes and compare it to the separate results of the concentration and temperature. ...read more.

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