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To find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid, by making up a standard solution, sodium carbonate, to titrate against the acid. The titration is therefore an acid-base reaction.

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Introduction

Finding the Accurate Concentration of Acid in a Solution. Aim: To find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid, by making up a standard solution, sodium carbonate, to titrate against the acid. The titration is therefore an acid-base reaction. Na2CO3 + H2SO4 --> H20 + CO2 + Na2SO4 Apparatus: 250cm3 volumetric flask and its stopper Funnel Glass rod 1 Bottle of distilled water Weighing bottle 100cm3 beaker Spatula Top pan balance Analytical Balance Making a Standard Solution As I am only provided with anhydrous sodium carbonate, my idea is to find how much of this solid is needed to make up the standard solution for the titration. To do this I must determine the approximate number of moles of the alkaline I want. As the concentration of acid is approximately between, 0.05-0.15 mol/dm3, it is best if the concentration of the alkaline is approximately the same, as the ratio of sulphuric acid to sodium carbonate is 1:1. This allows equal volumes to be used. I have decided to take the mean value of 0.05-0.15 for the number of moles for the alkaline I want. Therefore: (0.05+0.15) / 2 = 0.1mol/dm3 Now that I know the number of moles, I can substitute the known into a formula and find the mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate needed to make up s standard solution. ...read more.

Middle

Make sure to run the solution and distilled water though the jet too. 2 Set up a clamp stand and place a white tile firmly by the leg 3 Close the tap on the burette and pour the acid through carefully. Fill the burette up to zero. Place a small, clean beaker under the burette and run the acid though into the beaker. This fills the jet and check to see if there are any air bubbles present. (The acid in the beaker can be poured into the burette again) 4 Connect burette to the clamp stand and read value off to 2 d. p using a magnifying glass. This is you initial reading. 5 Rinse a pipette with distilled water and the solution to be pipette. Connect the pipette to its pipette fuller by holding the ends together and pushing firmly. Then pipette out 25cm3(up to the mark present on the pipette itself) of standard solution (the alkaline) and bring the conical flask to the pipette and fill by pressing on the lever. 6 Wash out the sides of the conical flask by using distilled water, so all content are being titrated. Do this periodically for more accurate results. ...read more.

Conclusion

VOLUMETRIC FLASK- the best equipment for best dilution. WHITE TILE-ensures the reliability as you can see if any drop are present on it, informing toy that the experiment has lost some atoms and ions and therefore not accurate as it could be. Also when titration begins the colour can be easily contrasted against the white tile, indicating when to stop titrating. This eliminates the possibility of over titrating. SUFFIENT INDICATOR-too much indicator could mean the titration process needs to titrate the indicator as well as the acid. MENISCUS: a meniscus is the shape that the solution makes and is quite thick. Always be consistent and read from the bottom of the meniscus to the mark, as represented on the diagram below. REPEATS- all experiments are independent to each other so neither experiment has an influence the tire. Repeating the experiment till the titres are consistent increases reliability as the answer is evidently within range. A ROUGH TITRATION-the rough allows over titration to be made a, eliminating the possibility of over titration at the later stage. RISK ASSESMENT Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) - Between the moles 0.5-1.5, it is known irritant to the eyes and the skin. Wear goggles and gloves when handling. (ii) Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate (Na2S04) - Irritant to eyes. Wear goggles when handling. (iii) As several glass equipment is going to be used carefully handle them. Clear any spills. ...read more.

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