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To find the percentage composition of citric acid in lemon squash. I will do this by finding out the molar concentration of the citric acid in 1L of water.

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Introduction

Aim: To find the percentage composition of citric acid in lemon squash. I will do this by finding out the molar concentration of the citric acid in 1L of water. Prediction: I predict that there will be around 2% of citric acid in lemon squash. I say this, because otherwise the lemon squash would be too acidic, and would not be drinkable. Background Knowledge: Introduction- The goal of this experiment is to determine which fruit , lemon, lime, grapefruit, or orange has the most citric acid (C6H8O7) in it. This will be determined by collecting the juice of each fruit and then titrating the juice with NaOH. By determining the amount of NaOH that is needed to reach the endpoint in the tiration, it will be possible to determine which fruit has the most citric acid in it. This acid-base titration will work because the NaOH that will be added to the juice will react with the citric acid in the fruit juice and once enough NaOH has been added, the moles of NaOH will equal the moles of citric acid. The reaction that will govern the process is; C6H8O7 + NaOH -> C6H7O7 + H20 + Na+. ...read more.

Middle

It was found that fresh lime juice required the most NaOH to reach the endpoint followed by lemon, grapefruit and orange as seen in Data Tables 1.1-4.1 (on the previous page). By determining which fruit juice needs the most NaOH to become neutralized, it is possible to determine which fruit contains the most citric acid. Chart 1.1 below shows the average amount of NaOH that was required to neutralize the acid in each of the fruit juices. It is interesting to note that the lime and the lemon juice required more than ten times the amount of NaOH than the orange and grapefruit juice. Calculations 1. During the course of the lab it was necessary to dilute the lemon and the lime juice because the required a large amount of NaOH to neutralize. In order to compare the amount of NaOH that was used to titrate the lemon and the lime juice to the grapefruit and orange juice, it was necessary to perform the following calculation- Amount NaOH used to titrate the diluted juices (mL) * 10 = Amount NaOH that would have been used if the juice was not diluted (mL) ...read more.

Conclusion

This will measure 25cm� of the NaOH. > Then, take this NaOH and put it into the titration column > Put the conical flask containing the lemon squash under the tap of the burette. > Slowly add sodium hydroxide solution by turning on the tap to the lemon squash and then shake the lemon juice. Again add more so sodium hydroxide solution by turning on the tap to the lemon squash and then shake the lemon juice. > Carry on doing this until the solution turns a pink color and the drop that turns it this color close the tap. > Read off the value in the burette (note the meniscus) and record this on your table of results. > Thereafter repeat this method again 3 more times to make it a fair test. > After all this is complete clear all the apparatus in a safe manner and wipe down the table as some solution may be spilt on it. > Lastly I will put all the results in a table and carry out calculations on volumetric analysis and analyze them and draw conclusions from them. I will put my results in a table like the one below. Reading Trial 1 2 3 Initial Final Difference Nirave Gondhia - Titration Coursework Skill Area P ...read more.

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