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To Investigate Factors Which Affect The Reaction Between Chalk (Calcium Carbonate) and An Acid

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Introduction

To Investigate Factors Which Affect The Reaction Between Chalk (Calcium Carbonate) and An Acid Introduction: Chalk is just one of many forms that calcium carbonate can take. It is made of the mineral remains of sea creatures from millions of years ago. It is quite soft, but solid. It reacts with hydrochloric acid like this 2 CaCO3 + 2 HCl � CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O producing Carbon Dioxide, which is what we measure in the experiment. There are different factors affecting the rate of this reaction, such as: * Temperature * Concentration of acid * Surface area of chalk * Pressure * Light intensity (this is a very small affect so it doesn't really count and I won't take it into account) * Whether a catalyst is present (in this experiment there isn't one anyway) (Note these factors affect the rate of the reaction, but not the final amount of carbon dioxide produced.) Why these factors affect it: higher temperature makes atoms move more so they are more likely to bump into each other and react. ...read more.

Middle

Every 30 seconds I'll take a reading off the syringe to see how much hydrogen gas has been collected. Safety: Because this is a strong acid, goggles and overalls must be worn, no running in the lab is allowed, and there are eye-washing tubes in the lab in case anyone gets any in their eyes. All stools and bags are under the tables and everyone must stand up as they do their experiments so they can run off if there's any danger. Fair test: The amounts of acid and chalk stay the same - only molarity changes. It will always be the same chemicals used, and the experiment will always be at room temperature. The chalk will always be pieces of around the same size so there is always a similar surface area. If I shake the tube once, I'll have to shake it every time, as this moves the chemicals around so some unreacted acid could come into contact with a part of the surface of the chalk which hasn't reacted with anything yet, for example. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example, to get 40cm3 of 1M HCl, I mixed 20cm3 of 2M HCl with 20cm3 of water, or if I wanted 40cm3 of 0.5M HCl I mixed 10cm3 of 2M HCl with 30cm3 of water. Results: Molarity (M) Time 1 (m) Time 2 (m) Time 3 (m) Average (m) 0.5 16 10 14.5 13.5 1 7.5 7.5 4 6 ? 1.5 4.5 5 5.5 5 2 3 3 3.5 3 1/6 3 2.5 2 1.5 2 Gas produced: Molarity (M) Gas 1 (cm3) Gas 2 (cm3) Gas 3 (cm3) Average (cm3) 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 Rates of reaction: Molarity (M) Average rate (cm3/min, 2dp) 0.5 3.28 1 10.16 1.5 21.40 2 27.58 3 56.17 Conclusion These results show that my prediction that the rate of reaction would increase as molarity of acid increased was right. Evaluation If I had to improve this experiment so it was more accurate I would do it with a larger size of chalk pieces so that it would take longer (smaller surface area) so my results would be more accurate, but if I wanted it to be quicker I could use smaller pieces. I could also use a wider range of molarities. ...read more.

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