# To investigate how changing the height of a ramp affects the average speed of a trolley.

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Introduction

Aim:

## To investigate how changing the height of a ramp affects the average speed of a trolley.

## Prediction:

I predict that if you increase the height of the ramp the speed of the trolley will increase as well.

Reason:

My reason for the experiment is that of the theory:

Potential energy lost = Kinetic Energy gained

So when an object rolls down an incline; the object is becoming lower to the ground, therefore the potential energy decreases and transfers into kinetic energy, until it gets to the ground where a complete energy transfer has taken place into kinetic energy.

These Diagrams will help:

This shows a trolley going down ramps with two different heights. There is an energy transfer happening. At the top of the ramp in both diagrams the transference of potential energy into kinetic energy has not taken place. However when the trolley starts to roll down the incline the transference begins, when it is half way down the ramp the energy is shared equally. From then on the kinetic energy is gaining more and more over the potential therefore becoming faster and faster, and then the trolley reaches the end of the incline, now a complete energy transference has taken place.

Middle

We are going to keep the clamp stands the same because some of the clamp stands have different grips, so some might slack and loose it s height position a bit. Again this might result in inaccurate results.

Results:

Height (CM) (+ - 0.5cm) | First Set Of Results Measuring Speed in m/s | Second Set Of Results Measuring Speed in m/s | Third Set Of Results Measuring Speed in m/s | Average Set Of Results Measuring Speed in m/s |

60 | 2.8 | 2.8 | 2.8 | 2.8 |

55 | 2.68 | 2.67 | 2.66 | 2.67 |

50 | 2.52 | 2.54 | 2.54 | 2.53 |

45 | 2.41 | 2.41 | 2.41 | 2.41 |

40 | 2.27 | 2.26 | 2.25 | 2.26 |

35 | 2.11 | 2.11 | 2.11 | 2.11 |

30 | 1.92 | 1.94 | 1.94 | 1.93 |

25 | 1.69 | 1.71 | 1.7 | 1.7 |

20 | 1.51 | 1.53 | 1.53 , 1.5 | 1.52 |

15 | 1.26 | 1.26 | 1.26 | 1.26 |

20 | 1.51 | 1.53 | 1.53 , 1.5 | 1.52 |

The 1.5 is a anomaly, because compared to the other results for this height its too big.

Conclusion:

I found out that the higher the ramp the higher the speed of the trolley. This agreed with my prediction that was based on the theory:

Potential energy lost = Kinetic Energy gained

When an object rolls down an incline; the object is becoming lower to the ground, therefore the potential energy decreases and transfers into kinetic energy, until it gets to the ground where a complete energy transfer has taken place into kinetic energy. In other words the lower it gets the faster it goes.

This diagram above shows a trolley going down ramps with two different heights. There is an energy transfer happening.

Conclusion

The experiment is reproducible, you can see it is by looking at these results for 60cm and 35cm.

Height (CM) (+ - 0.5cm) | First Set Measuring Speed in m/s | Second Set Measuring Speed in m/s | Third Set Measuring Speed in m/s | Average Measuring Speed in m/s |

60 | 2.8 | 2.8 | 2.8 | 2.8 |

35 | 2.11 | 2.11 | 2.11 | 2.11 |

Also we got a good set of results which gave a good conclusion. Using a height and calculating the result and comparing it to the same height on my graph can prove this:

Calculation for 15cm

h = 15.0cm

g = 10 m/s2

V = √(2gh)

V = √(2x10x0.15)

V = 1.73 m/s

Reading from graph for 15cm:

1.26 m/s

As you can see the readings are not exact but they are similar, the reason why they are not the sane is because the calculator does not account for friction or other wasted energy.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

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