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To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction in reacting Calcium Carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

AIM: To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction in reacting Calcium Carbonate and hydrochloric acid. THEORY: The rate of reaction tells scientists how quickly a chemical reaction occurs. To find out the rate of reaction, we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time. On the other hand we might measure how much product is formed. Graphs are used to measure the rate of reaction at any given point in time this is called the instantaneous rate. The slope of the graph is the gradient and it tells us how quickly a reaction is going at one particular time. Before a reaction can take place, molecules or ions have to bump into each other and the collision must be a hard one (hard enough to bring about a bond breakage). Only a small fraction of the collisions, which take place, are violent enough to bring about a reaction, because not all particles have enough energy. This is called collision theory. To speed up reactions, we must make the particles collide more vigorously and more often. There are many ways you can increase the rate of reaction: 1. Increase the surface area 2. Increase the temperature 3. Introduce a catalyst 4. Increase the pressure 5. Increase the concentration In my experiment I am looking at concentration. As you increase the concentration of hydrochloric acid the rate of reaction increases because there are more acid particles to the same volume. Therefore there is a greater chance of hydrochloric acid particles colliding with the calcium carbonate (marble chips). Low concentration High Concentration PREDICTION: I predict that as the higher the concentration the faster the reaction will take place this is because in a higher concentration there will be more hydrochloric acid particles. ...read more.

Middle

5 12 23 35 48 62 - - - - - - - - - - 50:00 (acid: water) 7 16 28 40 51 65 - - - - - - - - - - Set two Concentration 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 10:40 (acid: water) 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 - - - - - 20:30 (acid: water) 1 3 5 10 12 15 16 20 24 31 42 46 52 57 - - 30:20 (acid: water) 2 5 9 14 20 30 38 47 55 62 70 - - - - - 40:10 (acid: water) 2 6 13 21 32 43 54 60 67 - - - - - - - 50:00 (acid: water) 5 11 19 32 39 52 62 70 - - - - - - - - Set three Concentration 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 10:40 (acid: water) 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 - - - - - - - 20:30 (acid: water) 1 2 7 9 11 15 18 22 25 31 36 42 47 52 54 57 30:20 (acid: water) 3 7 16 29 38 50 65 70 - - - - - - - - 40:10 (acid: water) 6 10 16 24 35 44 53 62 - - - - - - - - 50:00 (acid: water) 4 12 24 38 52 60 65 - - - - - - - - - Averages Concentration 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 10:40 (acid: water) ...read more.

Conclusion

Another reason could be because of inaccurate reading, to solve this problem in the future I could have measured mass lost, to do this I would put the conical flask on a set of scales and measure the initial weight then the mass every 30 seconds like I did with the displacement. This would work because the gas/product would escape and cause a loss in mass. Another possible method I could have used was the gas syringe in the place of the measuring cylinder however this would have had the same problem with inaccurate reading but it may have prevented gas in the measuring cylinder at the beginning affect the results. However if I did the experiment again I would use the mass difference because it gives a more accurate digital reading and there are no tubes where gas could affect the results. There are many possible improvements I could make with the experiment I have just done, if I do the experiment again I would use a bigger measuring cylinder so that the experiment can go on for longer and I could see where the rate of reaction begins to slow down. An additional improvement would be to use a smaller mass of marble chip perhaps 0.5g, for the same reason as the bigger cylinder so that I could see where it decreases in speed. I believe my results fulfil the prediction they prove that as you increase the concentration you also increase the rate of reaction. Despite the anomalous results there is evidence to back up the conclusion. However if I did the experiment I would use the improvements listed above or the better method to ensure that the results are as reliable as they can be. Abigail Male Chemistry SC1- How concentration affects the rate of reactions 28th September 2002 ...read more.

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