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To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction My aim in this investigation is to find out if and how concentration affects the speed of reaction of two substances when they are mixed together. Firstly I will research and use my own scientific knowledge to make an prediction to I plan on setting up an experiment to find this out and at the end I will record all my results and convey them in chart and graph form. Once I have done this I will analyse my results and look for significant patterns. Finally I will draw a conclusion of all the findings I have made in this experiment. The two liquids I plan on reacting together are hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium sulphate (NaSO4). By altering the concentration of hydrochloric acid I will time how long different concentrations of hydrochloric acid take to react with the same concentrated sodium sulphate. Now I will plan on how to go about this experiment. By doing research I have also found that there are factors I need to consider which may modify the reaction rate. These are the factors that I will take into account and control: � Temperature � Concentration � Catalyst � Size of particles (surface area) ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, the colliding species must be positional so that they will suit the atoms and electrons. Therefore, according to the collision theory, the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds is equal to the frequency of effective collisions. Because atomic or molecular frequencies of collisions can be calculated with some degree of accuracy only for gases (by application of the kinetic theory), the application of the collision theory is limited to gas- phase reactions. The kinetic theory is the simplest model which is based on the assumptions that 1. The gas is composed of a large number of identical molecules moving in random directions, separated by distances that are large compared with their size. 2. The molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with each other and with the walls of the container (without any energy loss, but otherwise do not interact; and 3. The transfer of kinetic theory between molecules is heat. These simplifying assumptions bring the characteristics of gases within the range of mathematical treatment. To do my experiment I need the following equipment: Flask, Measuring cylinder, Beaker 1, Beaker 2, Stopwatch, Paper with cross marked on it and Goggles. Here is an illustration of my equipment: I will need to take safety precautions such as using goggles at all times whilst doing the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation: I believe that I do have an accurate set of results and that I do have enough results to be sure about my conclusion. My results are accurate because when I read the collision theory it told me exactly what my results told me. I do not have any anomalous results that do not fit in the pattern because my predictions coordinated with my results very well. My method of carrying out my experiment was fairly accurate. I made sure that I washed the beakers clean for the other two concentrations and the second experiment, I measured the same amount of solution in each time and I stopped the stopwatch as soon as I saw the cross had disappeared. I think that I should have used four different beakers for the four different concentrations because this would be fairer and there wouldn't be any water at the bottom of the beaker. If I was to do the experiment again I could improve the accuracy and reliability of my results by having a range of different concentrations. Also I could use the same amount of beakers for the number of different concentrations I use. If I had more time I could do extra experiments to investigate another factor such as the affects of temperature on a rate of reaction. Also I could investigate the affects of pressure on a rate of reaction. ...read more.

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