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To investigate how concentration of acid affects the rate of a reaction. Hypothesis: I predict that as the concentration of the acid increases

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction Investigation Aim: To investigate how concentration of acid affects the rate of a reaction. Hypothesis: I predict that as the concentration of the acid increases, the rate of reaction will increase. This is because the more particles of acid there are, the more collisions between particles will occur. This is important because chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other. I believe if I make the concentration of the HCA stronger I will get a quicker reaction. I constructed my hypothesis from a few basic ideas, one that all things are made from particles, two if two reacting particles collide with each other they will cause a reaction, and three all reactions have equations, and equations have two be equal on both sides. I.e. 7= 2+X, X would have to be 5, so if the amount one side is increased the other side must be increased. If I have a box with 5 purple balls, 4 green balls, and many blue balls, there would be a low chance of the purple and green balls colliding. This is the same situation with HCA and SCC, if there are 5 SCC particles, 4 HCA particles and many water particles then ...read more.

Middle

The amount of lime stone used- if this were to change, the rate of reaction would be affected because more limestone would take longer to fully react with the acid. Temperature- if this were to change it would affect the results because it would speed up or slow down the particles, causing either more or less collisions between particles. The input variable in this experiment is the acid concentration and the output variable is the rate of reaction, measured by how much carbon dioxide gas is produced. Apparatus: Burette, beaker of water, flask with tube, hydrochloric acid, limestone. Method: Limestone is put into the flask filled with hydrochloric acid. The bung connected to the tube is put on the flask. The gas produced travels along the tube and is released up the burette filled with water. The carbon dioxide produced displaces some of the water in the burette. The gas produced is measured using the burette, to show the rate of the reaction. The experiment is repeated for different measurements of concentration. For each measurement of concentration the experiment will be repeated a minimum of three times to ensure accuracy and to delete any anomalous results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other, so the higher the concentration of the acid, the more acid particles there are to collide with the limestone particles. Evaluation: There were a few anomalies in my results. This could have been down to taking too long to put the bung on the flask, which would have meant some gas would've been lost, or not all the gas produced going up the burette. The results could have also been affected by the surface area of the limestone. Although it is easy to keep the same mass of limestone used in the experiment, each piece would have had a different surface area which would have affected the results because the larger the surface area, the faster the rate of reaction because more limestone particles would have been exposed to the hydrochloric acid in pieces of a larger surface area. To extend this investigation I could use higher concentrations of acid to see if the results level out as the concentration gets higher, or if the rate of reaction continues to go up. I could also experiment with other factors that would affect the rate of reaction, like temperature and surface area of the limestone. ...read more.

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