• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

To investigate how the heart rate and breathing rate increase with exercise.Scientific KnowledgeAerobic respiration needs an input of oxygen, and outputs carbon dioxide

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assessed Practical Aim To investigate how the heart rate and breathing rate increase with exercise. Scientific Knowledge Aerobic respiration needs an input of oxygen, and outputs carbon dioxide. The internal surface of the lungs is where oxygen passes from the air into the body, and where carbon dioxide passes from the body to the air. This process is called gaseous exchange. Oxygen, which is breathed in with air, passes from the lungs into the blood. It can then be supplied to cells where it is needed for respiration. The waste product carbon dioxide then passes into the blood and onto the lungs where it is breathed out. Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6 H12 O6 + 6O6 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O+ Energy The input and output needs of the body do not always stay at the same level. One good example of this is when we exercise. Suddenly we need a lot more energy than usual because our muscles are having to work so much harder. To meet this need for extra energy the body responds in a number of way. * You breathe deeper and faster, taking more oxygen into the lungs. * Your heart pumps faster, sending more blood, containing oxygen and glucose to the muscles. * The muscles increase the amount of aerobic respiration, so that more energy can be provided for movement. Increases in heart rate and breathing rate are also important in removing carbon dioxide and water, and transferring heat energy away from the respiring muscles. After exercising for a while, your muscles cannot get enough energy from aerobic respiration. They need an additional supply of energy if exercise if is to continue. This problem is mainly the result of not being able to get the oxygen to the muscles quickly. Under these conditions the muscle will continue to respire aerobically (with oxygen) ...read more.

Middle

When we sweat we need to control the amount of water we transfer to the skin. The human body is two-thirds water. We gain water from the food we eat as well as the liquids that we drink. In addition, the body gains some water from certain chemical reactions- such as respiration- where water is one of the main waste products. There are a number of ways the body loses water. The average person, under normal conditions, loses about three litres of water a day in various ways: * In liquid waste (urine) from the kidney * In solid waste (faeces) from the gut * By breathing out water vapour from the lungs * By sweating from the skin Water balance is important because cells of the body only work properly if there is the right amount of water present. If we lost just about a tenth of our body water, we would die from dehydration. If you didn't take in any water at all, this would happen in about ten days but a lot faster in hot dry conditions. Long before that time you would be very uncomfortable. The feeling of thirst would become unbearable. Keeping the amount of water constant in the blood, and therefore in the whole body, is another important example of homeostasis: Water gain = Water loss Just as body temperature is controlled by the hypothalamus, so is the water content of the blood. The hypothalamus contains receptors that monitor the level of water in the blood. If the body is suffering from a lack of water, the receptors are stimulated and pass nerve impulses to the pituitary gland which is right next to the hypothalamus. This releases a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This passes through the bloodstream to the kidney where it causes more water to be reabsorbed from the tubes back into the blood. As a result of this, the urine will contain less water, it will be more concentrated, darker yellow and smaller in amount. ...read more.

Conclusion

Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy Heart rate increases because the breathing rate has increased. It allows the increasing levels of carbon dioxide to be removed out of the muscles and to the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place as quickly as possible. The heart is told to increase by the part of the brain called the When we exercise our muscles increase the amount of work they are doing causing us to breathe deeper and faster, which takes more oxygen into the lungs. To compensate for the increase in carbon dioxide levels the heart pumps faster, sending more blood, containing oxygen and glucose to the muscles and removing water and carbon dioxide. This allows the muscles to increase the amount of aerobic respiration, so that more energy can be provided for movement. This supports my prediction as I predicted that as exercise increases so will heart rate and breathing rate. Evaluation I feel my results were quite accurate but I think I could have improved the accuracy of my results if I had been able to use a watch which have measured my pulse. This would have also allowed me to measure it quicker so that I could move on and perhaps try another exercise to see if it affects breathing rate and heart rate in the same way that step ups affect them. I feel that doing the exercises like I did e.g. doing 20 step ups every minute and then waiting for my heart rate and breathing rate to back to normal before doing 30 steps per minute would have affected my glucose levels. This might have affected the levels at which my body would have worked. My results support my conclusion well. It shows a relationship and it matches my prediction. If I could do the experiment again I would try different exercises to see if that would affect the heart rate and breathing rate as well as the step-ups did. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Design an Experiment to show how exercise can affect Heart Rate in Humans.

    4 star(s)

    body, more blood is pumped to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated and this oxygenated blood can then be passed to the muscles, which use the oxygen to respire. But breathing rate increases, as more air is needed to travel to the alveoli in the lungs where the gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs with the blood.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of different sugar substrates on the rate of yeast respiration

    4 star(s)

    Using the 250cm� beaker, measure out 200 cm� of distilled water and place the 10g of yeast into it. Place the buffer tablet into the solution and stir it until it dissolves. This will ensure that the yeast solution is at the optimum pH in order for the enzymes to work effectively.

  1. An experiment to investigate the rate of anaerobic respiration of yeast in various respiratory ...

    Thus, if the experiment was carried out in anaerobic conditions the experiment couldn't be carried out for too long. In my opinion I believe that using Glucose as a respiratory substrate will result in the fastest rate of respiration for the yeast because Glucose is the only monosaccharide out of

  2. Ideal Position to Recover Resting Heart Rate- Lab. Does the physical positioning of ...

    68 64 64 Sulaiman Standing 64 136 108 100 88 84 15 Sitting 68 116 104 84 72 64 M Laying 56 132 96 80 76 68 Paolo Standing 80 140 108 92 100 92 15 Sitting 68 144 116 104 96 96 M Laying 56 128 88 84 80

  1. Experiment to compare oxygen and carbon dioxide content of inhaled and exhaled air

    Improvement (i) Use a more similar candle or simply use the same candle (ii) Establish when we start and stop timing d. Further investigation We may also find that the temperature of exhaled air is higher than that of inhaled air when we breathe onto our hands.

  2. Should the cloning of humans be allowed?

    mother for the rest of the pregnancy. This process is called somatic nuclear cell transfer (SCNT).1 Figure 3 Reproductive Cloning [above] The creation of Dolly the sheep has caused scientists to consider the possibility of human cloning and its implications. If a human clone was to be created, the process used would be very much similar to that of reproductive cloning used in animals.

  1. Assessment of Aerobic Fitness

    This factor would not give me much indication as to who will perform better in the test, as there would be no major physiological difference between the two athletes. If the test was to be performed by a male and a female then I could of made assumptions on the

  2. The aim of my investigation is to measure the effects of BMI (body mass ...

    This provides for both strength and elasticity: A. The inner layer is made of epithelial tissue. B. The middle layer is smooth muscle. C. The outer layer is connective tissue. Arteries and arterioles Arteries carry blood from the heart to the capillaries of the organs in the body. The walls of arteries are thicker than those of veins.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work